Thursday , August 18 2022

What's the "17th century" Ice Age "that teaches us on climate change – Quartz


Once again in Europe, the summers were very cool and the summers were unexpectedly painful. "Spring this year was like winter, it was cold and wet, the wine flowers were terrible, and the harvest was poor," said Swiss serpent Heinrich Bullinger in 1570.

Initially, this seemed as a temporary problem, just one bad year. Thus, across the continent, the growers shake off their poor harvesting, and wine wines sold a wine of southern vineyards that the users used unclear as they considered increasing grain prices.

But the extreme weather continued, season after season after season, until abnormal became a new routine. As William Shakespeare said in play 1593 Richard III, "Now is our winter dissatisfaction."

In his book Nature Crew, I was published in March by WW Norton & Company, German journalist, Philip Blom, states that Shakespeare has written those words as an literal description of the string of difficult winters he had just got. This extreme weather period, which would last for more than 100 years, is now called "Small Ice Age," and Blom argues that if we look back on its effects in Europe – where they have best documented – we will better Understand how we reach where we are today and predict what's on as climate change is increasingly affecting on our lives.

God has left us

In Shakespeare's time, religious authorities said that God punished men for their poor behavior with bad weather, and they call for more blessing to the disappointment of the disappointed deity. That idea inspired European cattle showers – the idea would be that the burning of women in the groove would somehow pour the winter's ground after freezing, making the rain fall carefully on the crops in the spring , and cools the summer sun. But the persecution to change the extreme weather was not obvious, and so slowly, people's ideas about how to tackle the crisis were transformed instead.

Over the next 100 years, during the 17th century, a new world-wide overhaul begins to catch. Instead of God who watches us, the planet – and all of nature – is treated as a type of clockwork, a mechanism that follows natural laws, which we can identify through observation and experimentation. Scientists get serious about exchanging information. Botanists send plants across continents, and Europe is struggling to grow grain-adopting new growth, such as tulips and potatoes, which prove to be the basis of new markets and gastronomies. Transforming economies. The rich become richer, the poor get poorer, and a small middle class is born.

By the time the weather becomes more seasonal, around 1700, many of the ideas that shape the world in which we live today have come to be-including ideas from a free market with its own logic. And of course, market forces "stimulate the behavior that led to a wide exploitation of natural resources that contribute to the current climate crisis, Blom notes.

So, the snake eats its tail. The new approach to growing food and wealth inspired by the Ice Age has led us to where we are today, with melting ice sheets and rising sea levels.

The more things change

The Small Ice Age was not considered to be caused by humans, although research that is to come in the Quaternary Science Reviews magazine disagrees with this, bringing the conclusion that war and disease in North America have led to the cooling . Some assume that the result of increasing volcanic activity influenced sea contamination that was changing deep sea water pressure and, as a result, the world's weather. Others argue that the increasing and voluminous activity of the extreme climate is the increasing volcanic activity.

Regardless of the case, Blom claims that we can better understand the future by exploring the past. History shows us how we reach where we are, as well as the difficulties that are facing us.

If it's fine, there's a reason to be scared and hopeful. The Ice Age was a period of crisis in Europe. But mother was proven to be ingenuity. The troubles also stimulated innovation and exploration, placing the foundations for a new way of life.

For example, when the extreme weather was first, Amsterdam was an incredible village in the Netherlands. Within a century, it became a busy port city and sophisticated metropolis, where all believers and beliefs swapped new, radical ideas, where the markets, the arts and the publication of all were thriving. Trading with Baltic ports in areas where grain was treated by serfs whose work essentially helps Amsterdam to evolve.

The positive transformation was forced into difficult circumstances. Therefore, in the best position, we will also have our kind of Lighting stage to look forward to in the future. But based on history, before things improve, they get worse, Blom predicts.

Take just what is needed

Its review of the Ice Age as affected by Europe is concerned in the detail of developing continent battles. In order to control in new circumstances and to feed populations that are contaminated at home, the Europeans rely on international mass mass recession and grow a lot of growing wealth that led to the decline of the continent.

Rich and poor poor Europeans also made profits on their own tire. Landowners across the continent have erased public commons that once served as places where anyone in a village could allow animals to graze or grow some peat. Once small-scale farming was made to feed individual families but it became a large-scale large-scale business exporter of the country to growing cities, which stimulates landowners to recover all their land. Blom explains:

The social and economic system of European feudal societies lay on land ownership and local grain production. It was its central pillar as well as the main vulnerability. When the temperature decreased enough to harass grain production and thus undermined this pillar, the whole social model fell. Europeans had to think about other ways of organizing themselves and their economic life.

This removal of the ordinary drove seamless villagers to the cities that grew up and worked for pittance to buy grain that once they grew up ourselves. Meanwhile, the wealth boosted a fortune with speculation in markets that now offered investment in new goods.

And no sheep

Tullau, for example, bubble stimulated the first documented stock market. A trader of Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire sent the flower bulbs to a Dutch man at the end of the 1500's. The receiver gave the cheb bulbs, thinking they were onions. In turn they threw them in a rubbish layer when I realized they did not eat.

But in the spring when the rubbish fluttered, the trader sent this overseas specimen to the leading botanist of the time, Charles de l 'Ecluse, in Leiden. They survived a very strong winter in 1593, and the botanist, in love, sent new flowers to Europe to his friends, naming after the word "turban" in Turkey.

The flowers came as a feeling that entrepreneurs bore bulbs from the botanist and began to nurture tulips to sell. By 1630, the price of one single varietal tulip bulbs could be equal to a "designated rural house", as Blom gives. Bullet of bullet came in the same accessory for any fine home in the Netherlands and beyond, inspiring "buying and selling breath" by investors.

The tulip swigen was suddenly and incredible in February 1637, leaving many investors disappearing and driving somewhat to their suicide. The bulbs were considered to be useless again, they were thrown away as they had the first chef that blocked them for breathing onions.


Blom argues that the extreme weather in the past creates new pressures that have stimulated new economic models that brought unexpected wealth and risks, and create an undesirable human suffering due to exploitation, so also the future transformational weather. "Then, as now, there is pressure from climate change on economic and social structures, on natural resources and social cohesion … Then, as a change in the weather, causes natural disasters, rising societies and create fear, as well as exacerbate the need for change, "he writes.

Taking the position of an historian of the current situation, Blom anticipates that we are in a similar situation today to Shakespeare and his peers at the end of the 1500s, on the verge of a revolution driven by the pressure that # 39; n create extreme weather. In other words, our winter dissatisfaction has started, this time it will probably be sparkling summer as global temperatures increase, disappear, resulting in temperature extreme.

Instead of despair, however, Blom encourages us to see the possibilities. Yes, there's a lot of trouble. But there is also the chance that climate change will stimulate the great evolution of next ideas – new touches and a new understanding of the planet – as it was in the past, transforming Europe from religious society to a reasonable society. Blom says we can no longer wait, writing, "Twenty-first century climate change makes it an urgent issue to rethink our cultural circumstances, as well as the place of humanity within a wonderful plan. "

Source link