Thursday , May 13 2021

Who was Ferdinand Hodler really? – News Culture: Art



There is a woman and a man waiting for the taxi in Geneva. "Do you know who works in front of the studio?" The man asks and answers straight away: "Weird weirded by a man, a man without education, an untouched bear Everyday woman, Brown, red, blonde, young, old. They say they are models, but you are even welcome the most ugliest. Believe that he is the best artist in the world just because he has earned a lot of money. Empty! Never go there! »

The man and the woman, both of them know: It's too late. The woman is already outside the main dimension. Stéphanie Guerzoni, the name of the wife waiting for a taxi almost a hundred years ago, is her pupil, who will never make her a name as a painter. Anyone searching for today finds only one permanent work – not a picture but a book: "Ferdinand Hodler as a man, a painter and a teacher". A man in the taxi fan that talks about himself in the third person as if it were someone else, that's Ferdinand Hodler.

Her lovely accident

What his pupil really appreciates his teacher is his "badly bad" when dealing with himself. Hodler is currently arguing about what is said about it anyway. He only works for the money, he's a woman, he likes combine both, painting with loved ones, models with his wife. In fact, he has released himself from bourgeois morality, that is what he stands for. And it's really money. Three-thirds are three, they do not hide that, to the opposite.

"There's a compliment," said Hodler to her student, Stéphanie Guerzoni, too cheap. "Just when an amateur makes the wallet to buy a picture for you, you sure he likes it."

There are now 65 and suspects, waiting for the taxi, that he has a lot of time left. He knows his way around death. He has lost all of his nearest relatives. He loved his two lovers of love, at the same time as the mothers of his two children, to the end. As victims, as dead, so dead.

«I'll whistle for everything that is said about me»: Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), recorded around 1913. Photo: Keystone

The older Hodler gets, the more obsession he produces. "Successively", people complain that they do not understand what it is driving: constant creation of the same. Three, four, five women are sequentially dancing, poor people alongside poor people, mountains behind bats, often set in a row. What art historians call "parallel" Hodler understand as "any kind of repetition". As he painted, he lives.

Female? Every second, the desire for the third time is increasing, in effect. Even before his 50th anniversary, he has 200 exhibitions behind him. After each prize he earns, he's thirsty for the next. "He was a victim person," said co-artist Cuno Amiet. "It sets out all its ambitions to end, to overwhelm it. From image to image, from year to year is more intense."

Heavy childhood

The current search of his centenary of his death would be happy. Special exhibitions, symposia, media reports, new stamp. He would have been stunned for the new biography that had appeared at the same time, funded by the Swiss National Institute of Science and well-known collectors such as Christoph Blocher or Thomas Schmidheiny. Two heavy kilos, 325 thick pages, topseriös were published. All that was in it was what could be documented with documents: "Traditional stories that have become legendary" were examined – and then deleted. But what is hodler without a tale? Something like Switzerland without Hodler – unreal.

Ferdinand Hodler is not the perfect one to be born on March 14, 1853. He only has a shameful memory about his father, a trader by trade. "I never saw her laughter, and her green mind did not always make her happiness," said Hodler, a lawyer and friend Carl Albert Loosli. The Hodler family moves from Bern to La Chaux-de-Fonds, where Johannes Hodler's father establishes a business and becomes bankrupt. "He was suffering from eating and often was unable to work." Tuberculosis is the name of tuberculosis today and has previously been referred to as a "pla plag" or "proletariat illness", which the artist belongs to. "Lumpenprolet," and the late Hodler once the early Hodler is called.

"Finally, I felt as if there were always a dead man in the house and he had to be so."Ferdinand Hodler in his biography

When his father dies, only seven are Ferdinand, the eldest of five children. A sixth child died before the father, also from tuberculosis. The mother is getting married again: the fourteen year old Gottlieb Schüpbach, who in turn brings five children to the marriage. The couple testify to another three, so that many people grow with each other. She lives in Bern city slippers, the Quartier Matte down the Aare, with a number of tuberculosis deaths each year. After all, Ferdinand Hodler also has happy memories. "I'm still proud when I think how, like a boy, as it is still for the children of poor people today, I went to Grauholz or Muriwald, or Bremgartenwald to collect dry firewood . "

Then the mother falls sick. Again tuberculosis. Ferdinand is sleeping in the same room, hearing she suffers at night and screaming. At noon she falls on Allmend Thun field. The children are there when the body is loaded and home chartered. Ferdinand, who is now fourteen, is experiencing a traumatic funeral: "We were very sorry at that time. On a common gart, the raw coffin was sent to the burial ground, and as a cut we grew up , my brothers and sisters, and myself on my own. This picture has been sudden and faithful to me throughout my life. "

In summary, he summarizes his childhood with Loosli's buzzard: "In the family, he was dead overall. It seems to me as if there were always a dead man in the house and as if & # 39; n must be like that. "He had felt that the conversion of the rinse to froze in his mother's crane suggests Stéphanie Guerzoni. With his own hands, he had to kidnap, raise his mother who died on the trolley. Even if the "only" would be a myth that there was no place in the National Fund study, it would be the case for a psychologically.

After contaminated by the landscape

Gottlieb Schüpbach, who is now widow for the second time, goes to the USA, to Boston for his eldest son. He sends his eldest step-son – Ferdinand Hodler – to a friend of the veduta at Tun. "After all, I learned the practical and workmanship quite thoroughly there and he learned a great pleasure," said Hodler later. "I can remember to have my goods traded for a long time with a thinsmith that had traced furniture and thinware of the best we can do." After contaminated by the landscape, he forgot about physical distress: "The huge power of the Stockhorn Chain, The tisian, the great mountains made me so large that I did not even think of eating and drinking . "
Throughout his life, he always returns to Llyn Thun; The Stockhorn necklaces are Ferdinand Hodler painting only sixteen in his 60 years of life. A picture of the Stockhorn series came under the last Christmas hammer: at the Sotheby's auction house in Zurich for 4.3 million francs.

For a while after he returned to Lake Thun: work from the Stockhorn series by Ferdinand Hodler. Photo: Keystone

In May 1912, Valentine Godé-Darel's girlfriend returned at Hilterfingen on Lake Thun. She gets weaker and weaker after her daughter's birth, Paulette. Hodler tuberculosis fears – there is cancer in the higher period. The fresh father draws and paints in the odd – a thousand times his favorite Valentine.

When training, Vedutenmaler Hodler produces tournaments for tourists. Unfortunately, it is not allowed to paint the mountains as it can see. He must paint them from the templates of the trainer. Unfortunately, he broke his apprenticeship and fleeted to Langenthal to Schuster Neukomm, his mother's brother, where his brothers and sisters have found a refuge and who will call a "bad guy". For a long time he can not stand, he disappears towards Geneva, helping here, sometimes on a farm, he's living short, exchanges the final coins for brushes and paint and strives for higher education in Geneva. He is registered at the university as a listener. Langenthaler's dad friend advised him to beat Professor Carl Vogt, zoologist and geologist.

So Upper Engadin saw: Hodler "Silvaplanersee" oil painting from 1907. Photo: Keystone

Vogt, Darwiniaeth's follower, appears to be a pedagogy reformer. Each student needs to take photos. Exactly scientific and also "to include your heart". When spreading in the laboratory, Hodler finds out the inherent secret of the muscle: Hodler later says that "on the dead man can be evicted -" so you have to turn a machine first to capture your internal gear ".

Warrior, lumberjack, cutting machine

Hodler never gets rid of human muscles throughout his life: warriors, wood loads, inflammation – these are his characters that every Swiss person wants to have their hands: Hodler's "mump" promises a half-century dollar central bank money, Hodler in "Lumberjack" green fifties. As a painting, the lumberjack is in at least fifteen versions. A special copy of a large format came to the office of two Federal Federal Councilors such as Christoph Blocher and Moritz Leuenberger.

For the current centenary of Hodler's death, Blocher did not give a damn and sponsored edition of the "Black" cultural magazine. In a short text, the Federal Council simply writes about painting the Hodler landscape and asks: "Are these mountains more?" Answer Blocher: "At least not just mountains. People rather: definitely, powerful, consistent, interesting and voiced by superficial and aerial things. Just as I imagine a good father, a capable entrepreneur, a creative politician : mountains suddenly become symbols. »

Today Hodler is caught. As a colonist, as an alpine veteran against everything that threatens the local. At that time, Hodler proved the opposite. At home, his work is originally declared "ugly" and later fired for political reasons. Too much reality in Switzerland: Hodler paints the Messenger, the prisoner, as the prisoner, the love of death as dead, the poor soul as arms, the Marignano battlefield as a battlefield. With him there is no ideal, no transformation, no beauty.

"Hodler's biographer, Carl Albert Loosli, is one of the best Swiss literature to offer."Hansjörg Schneider, author of crimes

The art historian of Zurich, Konrad Farner, praised self-admission, praised in a small writing above all the "The saver" image of Hodler's early work: "Image of best craftsman and Swiss art – Simultaneous awareness and class at the same time. »A proof of this is the white inscription on the left above the top of the wooden wall carpenter:« Department menus, 8 January 1875 »: date of joining the union. Like Farner Blocher, he appoints Hodler as "the people of the people".

Hodler's biographer, Carl Albert Loosli, also comes from the bottom: "Author who experienced the fate that was administered as a pupil at the home of education in Trachselwald / Emmental and for a lifetime who fought against safe administrative security Basel Hansjörg Schneider crime writer And adds: "Something of the best that Swiss literature offers."

Nerd a proletarian

Loosli, then a journalist and journalist, meets Hodler, then 44, for the first time at the Bernese «Kornhauskeller» restaurant. The theme is the dispute over the Hodler mural "Retreat from Marignano" in Landesmuseum Zürich. Both meet again and again, Hodler will guess that what he says to the journalist and soon a friend, is "confirming the story".

The audience stops in front of the "student" and breaks out in laughter.

Thanks to the biography of Loosli, we know that the young Hodler is allowed by Professor Vogt to join the first public art museum in Switzerland, the Musée Rath in Geneva, with a similar direct in front of the work of the two masters of Genera Alexandre Calame and François Diday. It draws line by line. Sometimes Barthélemy Menn looks over her shoulder, professor of the School of Art of Genealogy. "Menn was always friendly and gave me a valuable advice." He generously draws the talented Hodler to the school and allows it to take a picture, take a picture.

Hodler has been allowed to stay in Menn's native school for five years, coupled with the family's sons, "les fils à papa", called "the nerd" when calling himself in "the proletarians" who have no money to afford models. So it's started with a self portrait. "The student" is displayed in the spring of 1876, even considered – but declared "ugly" in the "Journal de Genève" on April 12, 1876. The audience stops in front of the "student "and breaks out in laughter. The 23-year-old author "should go to school to learn" the beautiful again "- if he / she does not want to afford the" luxury "to the hunger, write the bourgeois journalist in the bourgeois newspaper.

Hodler, who learned in her youth in Matte Quarter Quarter, what sun and sorrow is, continues to paint. And when the second paper of Gene, Le Genevois, of the name "Le laid et le sale" (The Ugly and the Birty) on March 13, 1877, draws a lesson in his life: "I'll whistle in everything that causes me to be told and to write. "Why is it so confident? Because he is already celebrating his first major success: in 1874 he won the Grand Calame Award for painting "Waldinneres" landscapes ("Le Nant de Frontenex"). He does not spoil the silver prize of 300 francs, he needs four years later when he fled to Madrid.

"Fighting himself, beat him, she sounds me."Ferdinand Hodler, quoted after Hans Mühlestein

The direct cause for the departure is the relationship with Mademoiselle Caroline Lechaud, who Ferdinand Hodler admits forty years later to Bernane's journalist and art historian Hans Mühlestein. Caroline Lechaud is the first female model Hodler. Girl "from a good family of citizens" who do not have to ask for money for modeling, he would not have anyway. "I was still so messy." Fearing their gentle parents, they both see each other but secretly.

In Hodler's words, quoted in Mühlestein, "she always was a nice torture when I was sitting with me. I can not stand it so often. But she did not want to know anything about touching in the world. ; it was too hot for me. I threw a brush and a palette and put it in my arm. "

The Miss called a full police response: "He's fought, beaten, she's bored me, and she's sorry, I've never seen her again. "This story also, about Hodler himself, has become a legend. In the National Fund study, Caroline Lechaud is not just mentioned: such as Hodler's "first" and "secret fiancee."

With poor devils

Today the "Caroline Lechaud Portrait" belongs to the collection at the Kunsthaus Zürich. The 23-year-old booby Hodler has succeeded as a painter to catch the young woman who had to wear on Sundays in all her distress. Hobbies.

In Madrid, Hodler does not go artistic. Back in Geneva, he will be exhibiting in an empty boutette in an outhouse house, at 20 Entrance at the center. The response is strict. The "Tribune de Genève" on April 23, 1880 discovers all "dash of vulgarity" paintings. "Le Genevois" locates "a poorly led pupil whose spelling errors are original". Now he's growing in the "soldier of proletarians," as he will often say and be proud. "At the time I lived almost entirely in the society of bad manners, which could not exist in the deepest strata." He releases schnapps drinks from the street ditch, he also personally knows all the other men and women who are modeling it. "I was attracted to the unfortunate and for me."

He does not have a bed. "For three years with the night, I hang the door of the closet to sleep," the floor was so wet and pumped in its stall. He covered with unpaired canvas, Loosli, Mühlestein and Guerzoni. Or is that a legend? For authors of the National Fund's study already. "Try to cover canvas," Oskar Bätschmann and Paul Müller urge journalists at their press conference.

Hodler joins Grand Rue, 35, next to St Pierre's Cathedral, into a studio with a terrace and charming. How can it afford that? "I've never paid my debts with pictures," the artist answers such questions.

In the new studio, paintings that are already triggering emotions with their titles are drawn. "The disappointing soul": five men, dressed in black, with cattle and shrubs on their faces, sitting, looking down, on a ground floor. "The weary of life": Five men in white costumes with hinges and surfaces on their faces, looking down, on a bench in a cemetery.

"Vagabonding" becomes the great piano Hodler and "The Night" his masterpiece, which caused the first scandal in 1891, at 38: The picture shows nine sleeping in a rocky landscape. Not all of them have been worn out. The man in the middle, without any doubt, Ferdinand Hodler himself, wakes up in shock. Above him a black watch figure that represents a death. At the back of the photo frame is Hodler's handwriting: "Plus, one who is couché tranquillement le sings ne s & # 39; éveillera pas le lendemain matin."

Two women are obviously known. The wife on the left side of Hodler is his girlfriend, Augustine Dupin. He has been known for three years and has been painting for three years. On October 1, 1887 he gave birth to Hector's son. Then Tad Hodler falls in love with Bertha Stucki, who is married on June 18, 1889, in the middle of his wet work on The Night. Bertha Stucki slips straight to the "The Night" picture, she sits to her right.

With this work Hodler made for the first scandal: "The Night" from 1889/90. Video: Bern Bernstein

The "Evening" hanged at the Race Musée in Geneva – and to take away the next morning. "Contrary to morality", "perverted", judges of the mayor, Théodore Turrettini. German-speaking protests speaking in Germany, newspaper newspapers, letters to the artist, Loosli collects: "Drawings of canary and unauthorized love" , "Glorification of nothingness, of nirvana", "Representation of bad conscience".

Hodler continues sober: "If I were observing impartiality, we would first ask myself: What do I see? & # 39; & # 39; His answer: & # 39; Nine figures, six of them pair and three of them in a group and in the middle figure, being oppressed by another. That's me , that's what I wanted to paint, and I painted it as well as I understood and could. Point. "

As an artist, he does not complain, he uses the enthusiasm in the press and breaks his image in the Election Bétiment, a small private room adjacent to the large Musée Rath. A frank who requests all requests. 1200 people flooded the Bâtiment within three weeks and thanks to this 1200 frank Hodler arrived at his destination: Paris. "Switzerland does not understand until they see I've been able to do it elsewhere." Indeed, at the Exposition Nationale des Beaux-Arts, the most important exhibition is presented in Paris, "The Night" at Honors Hall.

They deny him "hypocrisy"

Another scandal takes place in Zurich a decade later. Opening the National Museum in 1898, there will be a competition for religious fires in the large arm hall. Meanwhile, Hodler rents a barn outside Bern, which is wide enough to make templates of cardboard pieces on scale 1: 1. Huge bees. The summer passes, the nights are cooler, but "as long as I work, I do not feel cool," he said. r seller. One morning, the colors are freezing. However, the jury will choose the Hodler draft "Retreat from Marignano" in January 1897.

Then it's started. National Museum director, Heinrich Angst, is protesting with an article in the NZZ, rebellious rebels from university teachers, urban councils in Zurich stimulate advertisements in the newspapers, the Federal Council interferes, for Hodler to present a second draft in public, and eight thousand visitors flock to Zurich within seven days, the Federal Council is coming to four, finally, the new State Museum is a federal thing.

Hodler never gets rid of the human muscles throughout his life: Hodler in "Wilhelm Tell" from 1897, which is currently being exhibited at the Bern Kunstmuseum. Photo: Keystone

The mistake is Hodler's artistic integrity. It paints how the blood breaks down, and is pushed because it is a "blood neck". He wants to show the warriors with faces, with faces of peasants, servants who went to war – not for freedom but for money. The Confederation was rulers, thousands of the Duke of Milan's service in the defensive battle against the French, together with thousands of Swiss-country troops.

Hodler is not a painting battery. He spreads myths for himself, but no tales about Switzerland. This is also shown by the argument that is related to the image Wilhelm says: "I am" said the advocate and the developer Hodler, Loosli, "I can not imagine and Tell , the Sennen and Gemsjäger, as Schiller about her Describing the purposes. "Hodler's Tell was" a stupid mountain man with the smell of a cow. "He wears Hodler's self-portrayed self-portraits. Until today, in all outdoor performance, Tell is happening, as Hodler has created.

It does not become active politically, it's hard to read the newspaper, but it's still convicted. In 1917, when the Russian revolution broke, he told Stéphanie Guerzoni: "This is a tremendous event of the era.The war does not have a great deal of significance, wars have always existed and are reminded & Quickly, this revolution is to start a new era on a completely new basis of tremendous significance. "

Only the equal rights between men and women who are limited to it.

Hodler, a long international star, is being protected everywhere. In an exhibition in Berlin in 1914, he meets Kaiser Wilhelm II at the opening ceremony. He sat opposite at his lunch. Hodler has an Honors French Legion rust in the button button. He fights the Emperor's eyes. His face is hard, his attitude is frozen. He greeted and walked away, "said artist Stéphanie Guerzoni.

After documenting is: Hodler has signed after shrinking Reims Cathedral in September 1914, together with 120 cultural workers and other intelligents as a solution that includes the word "barbarians". Therefore, it is banished in Germany from all art societies. "I'll keep the expression upright," says Hodler to Loosli. However, it was never the case that "barbarians" mean all the people of Germany. "It was only for people responsible for testing the ordered and executed dome." Such questions reveal the influence of his second century. The journalist Hans Mühlestein developed a socialist police, abolished from Prussia in 1919. Later, left-wing art critic Konrad Farner confirms: "Hodler was democratic through and at all times on the side of the weak. "

Only the equal rights between men and women who are limited to it. In 1910 Hodler became the central president of the «Association of Swiss Painters, Sculptors and Peppers» (GSMBA). Carl Albert Loosli works as his secretary. I also discuss whether artists should be included in society. Hodler ended the discussion with the words: "Mer wei kener Wiiber."

In the new National Fund study, original text for reading in Hodler in French is read: "Women's emancipation by the woman is one of the most beautiful joke, produced under the sun." Hans Mühlestein said: "The woman for Hodler was seldom more than a model, object of desire or a means for social purposes." At the height of its success, Hodler boasted a "dramatic detail" cansero how could every girl he wanted.

In an emergency, however, a woman must feed him. Even so, the repeater becomes an offender and a repetitive victim. Shortly after his experience with Caroline Lechaud, when he is already a father of two, he wants the German debut, Charlotte Berend-Corinth, "son". He then kisses him – and "I'm too small his lip," writes Charlotte Berend-Corinth in his autobiography. He jumped back and he appointed me. Then it tidied its question: Do you want me to forget? & # 39; I got my request. & # 39;

And how does Hodler aging treat his death? He does what he has done throughout his life, he prepares one self portrait after another. "At least one will not be able to tell me I did not know the jerk and was painted honestly." In 1916 ten self portraits were added, in 1917, six more, in 1918 last. When he closes his eyes on May 19 that year, his friend Cuno Amiet visits him and does what Hodler did to himself for two lovers. Amiet: "He liked him. He was lying in the coffin."

Until January 13, Bern Kunstmuseum hosts a comprehensive Hodler exhibition with almost a hundred works by the artist.

(The magazine)

Created: 13.11.2018, 15:03 cloc


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