You probably know when the flu season occurs, but what about a chicken season or a gonrhea period? Well, according to a new review study, a host of infectious diseases include "seasons" where their activity is covered.
The study, which reviewed information from dozens of scientific papers, found evidence of seasonal in at least 69 different infectious diseases.
These diseases ranged from common disturbance such as pneumonia and Salmonella infections to relatively scarce diseases such as Ebola and African sleep illness.
Some of the seasonal infectious diseases that have best described in the United States are flu, which you know (as you know) the summit and winter; chicken, spring in spring; and gonorrhea, which is highlights in the summer and autumn.
The study even finds evidence that some chronic diseases have a seasonal component. For example, some studies suggest that hepatitis B infections rise in spring and summer in some parts of the world. And early research suggests that HIV / AIDS can also be seasonal in some areas of Africa, where seasonal nutrition deficiencies can affect HIV sequencing to AIDS. [27 Devastating Infectious Diseases]
"Seasonal is a powerful and common feature of infectious diseases, although the scientific community has been largely ignored for most infections," said study author Micaela Martinez, an assistant professor at Columbia Mailman's Public Health School, in a statement . The study was published today (November 8) in the PLOS Pathogens magazine.
Indeed, for many infectious diseases, there is little research on why they reach a peak in some seasons. Martinez called for more studies so that scientists can better understand the specific reasons behind seasonal bricks and accelerate infectious disease rates. "We need a lot of work to understand the forces that drive season seasons and understand how we can transport seasons to design interventions to prevent the prevention and treatment of chronic infections," said Martinez.
But in general, there seems to be four main drivers of the infectious disease of illness, according to the review:
Environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture, which are considered to be a part, for example, when transmitting flu. (Studies suggest that flu virus particles can continue in the air for a longer period, and travel longer distances, under cold, dry conditions). In addition, temperatures play a part in spreading some diseases that are infected. be transported by insects. For example, mosquitoes are reproduced in warmer temperatures, giving a boost to transfer diseases that are transported with mosquitoes such as Zika in hot months.
Supporting behaviors, such as children who start school, fall in close contact with each other, who play a role in spreading the measles, for example.
Ecological factors, such as multiple of algae in water, which are the bacteria disease disease collage aids.
Biological rhythms, migration and hibernation in animals, or variations in human hormone levels, which can affect the immune system.
To better understand why individual diseases are peak in some seasons, researchers could start by analyzing databases that contain information about "notifiable diseases" or diseases that are routinely reported to health officers . Researchers could then combine this data with models of transmission of potential transient diseases, drivers, ecological, behavioral or physiological.
"Finding seasonal mechanisms for disease systems would empower the public health community to control infection better," said Martinez. And with this information, researchers would know the best season to undertake measures to control these infections.
At present Martinez is studying whether seasonal fluctuations in the melatonin hormone could affect the immune system and play a role open to some infectious diseases.
Originally published on Living Science.