Selection and preparation: Č. Đurđić
On this day 1379. Balsha II wrote a charter in the vernacular to the people of Dubrovnik, applauding the free movement of Dubrovnik merchants around his country – buying, selling and paying customs, as they did during the life of his brother, Lord George I.
1789 – Bishop Peter I sent a letter to the Deaf and the Buddhist, advising them not to “listen to some fraudsters who lead them to war – to trade with them and to fill them” because, the Bishop told them , “they see their benefit, not how they will do well».
1847 – Serbian writer, translator and actor Joakim Vujić, father of the Serbian theater, founder and director of the “Princely-Serbian Theater” died in Kragujevac (1833). He traveled to European countries, gained theatrical experience and set up theater groups. He was a supporter of the “Slavo-Serbian language” and an opponent of Vuk Karadzic.
1894 – Russian composer and pianist Anton Grigorjevic Rubinstein, founder of the Petrograd Conservatoire, one of the greatest pianists of the 19th century, has died. He composed the opera “Demon”, piano compositions, solo songs (cycling “Persian songs”).
1910 – Russian writer and thinker of noble origin Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy, one of the greats of Russian and world literature, died. With the novel “War and Peace”, he created a kind of “time and space” (epic novel). As an artist and analyst he was interested in moral-ethical and social problems, and as a literary aesthetist he favored didactic art for the people. Due to his critical attitude towards society and the church, he came into conflict with the authorities, and was executed by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1901. He took part in the Crimean War as a young officer, and then retired to the estate at Jasna Poljana. He lived in Jasna Poljana and Moscow until he was 82, when he left his family and house and died at Astapovo train station, refusing to reconcile with the church. He wrote against every institution that made social life impossible, against interest-based marriage, against unjust courts, against the church and its hypocrisy, against war, the exploitative aristocratic class, and imperial autocracy and fright. Famous works: with “War and Peace”, “Ana Karenjina”, “Sevastopol Stories”, “Folk Stories”, “What is Art”.
1918 – On the basis of indirect, public and collective voting, conducted in accordance with the rules of the Central Committee for Merger, which was not a legislative body, Captain Cetinje’s commissioners elected deputies for the illegal Podgorica Assembly. On such a way of electing deputies, the citizens of Cetinje, who were against unconditional merger, filed a complaint to the Podgorica Assembly.
1925 – Bolshoi Theater star star Russian ballerina Maja Pliseckaja was born for nearly half a century. At the age of eleven, he began playing in a ballet choir, in 1943 he became soloist, and then prima ballerina, fulfilling many leading roles in classical and modern ballet.
[1945[1945 – The Nazi war criminals’ case in World War II began in Nuremberg before the International Military Court, where, for the first time in history, an international forum condemned aggression as a crime against humanity and punished the criminals. Ten months later, 12 defendants were sentenced to death, three to life in prison, four to 10 to 20 years in prison, and five released.
1955 – It is in Bar, in the church of St. Nikola, Dr., was buried. Nikola Dobrečić, Archbishop Bar and Primate Serbia. Since his appointment in 1912, he has preached religious, national tolerance, peace and love among the people, constantly advocating humanistic values. He spoke several foreign languages and was involved in literary work. He was a supporter of the unconditional unification of Montenegro and Serbia, and in 1919 sought recognition of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in the Vatican, for which he was sued by the Montenegrin émigré government in the Holy See.
1959 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which proclaimed equal rights for all children, regardless of race, religion, origin and gender.
1975 – Spain’s dictator Francisco Franco, who ruled Spain for a dictatorship for 36 years, has died. Two days later, Juan Carlos became king of Spain.
2006 – The Montenegro Senate Constitutional Committee began drafting the highest legal act by considering the specialized text of the draft constitution, made by the Constitutional Affairs Council headed by Academician Mijat Šuković.
2006 – American director Robert Altman, one of the most important contemporary film directors in the world, died in Los Angeles at the age of 82. Altman has made 87 films and been nominated for five Oscars for the films “Gosford Park”, “Nashville”, “The Player”, and “Short Cuts”. At the 2006 Academy Awards, he received a lifetime achievement award.
2008 – The Montenegrin Government has adopted a draft act on the protection of personal data, which regulates the method of data protection held by state and municipal bodies, companies and individuals.
2008 – World news agencies reported that scientists, through DNA analysis of two hairs and one tooth, have been able to identify the remains of Nicolaus Copernicus, creator of the solar system heliocentric theory. “Excavations at a cathedral in Frombork, Poland, in 2005 found a skull that was found to be Copernicus,” said Polish archaeologist Jerzy Gasowski, bringing a successful two-century search by experts from Poland Poland, France and Germany for the grave of Copernicus.
2012 – Zagreb County Court sentenced former Croatian Prime Minister Ivo Sanader to a single sentence of ten years in prison for accepting bribes and throwing war. In reading the indictment, the judge noted that Sanader used the function for, as he said, “his own enrichment, and not for the benefit of all”.
The following also happened on this day:
1602 – Born German physicist and inventor Otto von Guericke, who was the first to demonstrate vacuum and demonstrate the famous air pressure experiment (“Magdeburg hemispheres”).
1873 – Two cities on the right and left bank of the Danube, Buda and Pest, merged into one and formed the Hungarian capital of Budapest.
1923 – Gareth A. Morgan patented the first automatic traffic lights.