Saturday , October 1 2022

Scientists have discovered a 125-year-old brain secret to help treat epilepsy


Research can open the way to treat different types of epilepsy and symptoms that occur due to the lesions of the brain caused by trauma, infection or tumors in the brain.

Since 1893, scientists know the mysterious structures of the name of perineuronal networks that have been wrapped around neurons, but the role of these networks was still unknown. However, a group of scientists from the University of Virginia led by Harald Sontheimer (Harald Sontheimer) decided that these networks adapted electrical stimuli in the brain. In addition, it was found that seizures can occur if the abolition of networks would be canceled. Results & works published in the magazine Nature Communications.

Initially, researchers found this finding in mice suffering from epilepsy caused by fatal fatal cancer, glioblastoma, whose first symptom is often stimulants. Glioblastoma is the only cancer that has restrained in space. As the skull blocks the cancer from extending the outside, the tumor produces excessive chemical neurotransmitter (glutamate), which kills adjacent healthy cells to make space.

In addition to glutamad, the tumor is an enzyme compounding that aims to destroy the adjacent alkaline matrix – a similar cellular substance that holds the brain cells in place. Glioblastomas are very malicious and are known to be able to spread in the body. The enzym secreted is a type of knife that breaks cancer cells, allowing them to move freely.

To their surprise, scientists also observed how the perisuronal enzyme networks wrapped around GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) preventive neurons, which help to prevent seizures.

First, the peripheral network neurologist Camillo Golgi (Camillo Golgi) was discovered in 1893, but then misunderstood his role. Golgi called the "corset" network and said they were most likely to prevent the exchange of messages between neurons. The Sontheimer's study refuses this. The scientist found, on the contrary, that networks support messages. Neurons covered by perineuronal nets have reduced membrane capacity and the ability to store electrical charge, which means they can boost pulses and fill them up to twice. faster than non-nervous neurons.

When they lose their dangerous networks suddenly, the results can be disastrous: applying this enzyme to the brain without tumors, scientists have seen that the largest enzymatic degradation of the perineuronal networks is enough to trigger seizures – even when the neurons were intact.

Now the researchers' attention focuses on the role that perinatal networks play in other types of epilepsy acquired – for example, due to injury to the pen or infection in the brain – which will come They are closer to creating effective medicine.

"We've solved the 125-year-old neurology secretary! That's what is underlying science to keep open mind and observe and answer old and new questions," said Sontheimer.

According to the World Health Organization, more than 50 million people suffer from epilepsy worldwide, and a third of them are not exposed to known anti-epileptic procedures.

Dmitry Mazalevsky

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