The longer we live, the higher the chance of surviving Alzheimer's disease. According to statistics, the cases have increased rapidly for 80 years, and in 85 Alzheimer's covers every third. But imagine you're 79 years old and someone asks a question: don't you want to continue living from tomorrow? This psychological test is used by experts in aging research and life extension to show that the absolute majority of people want to live at any age. So the fight against diseases "old age" is not less important than the search for effective cancer treatment.
But the best thing, of course, is to avoid the disease altogether. So, along with drug development, scientists and doctors are looking for methods to prevent diseases. Experts analyze lifestyle, health status of large groups of people around the world and their incidence rates for this or that disorder. Recently, in an internationally renowned scientific medical journal Boundaries in neurology An overview of Alzheimer's disease prevention data(dementia). A large group of scientists from , , , a .
WHAT IS PREVENTION?
To understand the stage at which it can comply with the help rules (see below), it is important to know what is actually preventing, explaining the authors of the paper. The World Health Organization identifies three types of prophylaxis:
– a primary prevention has been designed to avoid the disease;
– The secondary is designed to recognize the disease in its early stages, when the symptoms did not even appear. The task is to prevent or slow the development of the disease. This type of prophylaxis includes, among other things, screenings. That is, checks and checks of people at risk of developing a disease;
– Tertiary restraint is applied when a person is already ill. In this case, the goal is to avoid the development of the disease, serious complications and disability.
Total: unlike general ideas, prevention is possible even when a person is already ill. Let's say he has been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. This means that the rules, described below, can help anyone completely. If you do not avoid the disease, then reduce the risk of at least serious complications.
THREE STEPS FROM ALZHEIMER
National Institute for Aging Studies (USA) a Alzheimer's Society in 2011, we developed a model that distinguishes the three stages of the disease. At the first stage, the patient does not have the smallest external signs of the disease, while the predecessors of the imminent disaster appear in the brain. The process of accumulating amyloid plaques and its deformation-train, which then literally chokes brain cell neurons. In fairness, we note that: for researchers there is still a lot of mystery. In particular, amyloid clots, plaques using the brain positron tomography method can be found in many people who are already 40 years old. But, fortunately, Alzheimer's disease is not developing at all. That is why the early diagnosis of the disease remains one of the main problems.
In the second stage of Alzheimer's, a “soft” cognitive impairment appears. The destructive processes in the brain are already ahead, but the difficulties with memory, mind and speech are not so strong. A person can serve themselves independently.
In the third stage, dementia happens. Dementia. Severe brain impairment. A person no longer remembers who he is (although individual “lighting” is possible), he doesn't recognize relatives. Over time, the brain “atrophies” is so much that the patient loses memory only, but also the ability to move, swallow, breathe.
SAVE YOUR OWN CAM
Scientists call these seven rules "risk factors that can be adapted for Alzheimer's disease and dementia." What it means: we can control ourselves. Change your life and the lives of your loved ones to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease destroying the brain significantly. It seems to you that this is like a healthy lifestyle rules banal? Possible. But in persuasion, the researchers performed calculations and noted: what role one or another factor plays in the development of Alzheimer's disease and how many people might have saved from themby following each rule.
1. Give up smoking.
4.7 million cases of Alzheimer's disease worldwide are mainly associated with smoking, the researchers said. How can this be? To give it simple, the harmful toxins that enter the body during the smoking period cause irritation to the walls of blood vessels. Including the brain. Because of this, the most dangerous amyloid plaques, which cause nervous neurone cells, accumulate quickly.
If you reduce the level of smoking in the world by 25%, then about 1 million people could be saved from Alzheimer's, scientists say.
Anything that affects the heart and blood vessels also increases the risk of Alzheimer's. This is too heavy, and hypertension, and increases "bad cholesterol"Picture: Vladimir VELENGURIN
2. Remove excess weight and obesity in the middle age (after 40 years).
We are talking about those with a body mass index (BMI) above 30, scientists note. Recall: to calculate the BMI, take your height in meters, scour. And then divide the body weight in kg by the following figure.
Around 677,000 cases of Alzheimer's disease in the world are mainly associated with overweight, according to the study.
– Alzheimer's disease appears to be closely related to cardiovascular diseases: everything that affects the heart and the bad blood vessels also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This is too heavy, and high blood pressure, and “bad cholesterol,” he said." Scientific Director of Health and Aging Center of Population, Duke University (North Carolina, USA), Doctor of Sciences, Professor Anatoly Yashin t. – There is even vascular theory of Alzheimer's disease: microbapiles, small boats with age or due to unhealthy lifestyle become less elastic, more rigid, begin to break down, and this leads to an increase in permeability of the barrier in the brain's blood protects our brains.
In particular, due to the reduction in security of such, the processes that cause Alzheimer's disease begin to accelerate.
3. Exercise, not leading a sedentary lifestyle.
4.3 million cases of Alzheimer's disease are associated with physical inactivity, scientists fear. Because of this, blood circulation in the brain suffers. And this means there is a higher risk of collecting hazardous substances that could be washed out with blood flow.
Tip: The international gold standard today is considered at least 150 minutes of physical activity a week, or at least 30 minutes 5 days a week. And the best is 40 to 60 minutes every day. The safest type of exercise is cardiological walking, that is, as quickly as possible, but so that there is no breathlessness.
4. Improve your education.
A low level of education contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease in 6.5 million people worldwide, scientists say (how to assess the level of their education has not been identified).
– To prevent Alzheimer's disease, it is important to create the alleged cognitive fund. This can be done through activities that lead to the formation of new neurone connections and the stimulation of new nerve cell stimulation (they have very little in an adult, but nevertheless), the teacher explains. – The most powerful tool for creating a cognitive fund is getting unfamiliar skills and knowledge. For example, learning a foreign language, visiting exciting educational lectures or watching them on television, mastering computer skills in old age, learning to dance, drawing, modeling – everything we need to remember and remember, being creative – it is all this helps to create and strengthen links. between neurons.
5. Time to diagnose and treat diabetes.
Around 825,000 cases of Alzheimer's disease are associated with diabetes, the authors of the study write.
“The link between Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes is being studied, there is no consensus among scientists yet,” said Anatoly Yashin. – It's not entirely clear what the case is and what the result is, but one of the theories looks like this. In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance develops, that is, insensitivity to the hormone insulin, because of this, glucose is poorly absorbed on the margins, that is, outside to the brain. Until recently, insulin is not thought to affect the metabolism (processing and assimilation. – Auth.) Glucose in the brain. But recently he discovered complex mechanisms, and as a result insulin resistance, as it happens, increases the chance of developing Alzheimer's disease. Because of this, this disease even had another name: “type 3 diabetes”.
6. Pay attention to depression treatment.
This disease stimulates at least 3.6 million cases of Alzheimer's disease worldwide, scientists warn.
The presence of depression itself is already a sign that there are some deficiencies in the brain, that neurons may be more susceptible to harmful processes. Long-term observations of large groups of people show that depression is an important risk factor that increases the likelihood of Alzheimer's disease.
7. normalize blood pressure and prevent hypertension in the middle age (after 40 years).
According to the study's authors, due to untreated hypertension, Alzheimer's patients earn 1.7 million patients. Increasing pressure threatens not only heart attacks and strokes, but also the development of dementia, stress scientists.
For information: if it's our person less than 65 years of age then its sOral (upper) pressure should be between 120 and 130 mm Hg, diastolic (lower) – 70-80 mm Hg. For individuals over 65 years of age target weight 130 – 140 lower and 70 – 80 lower. This is what you want to strive for. If there is excess, you need to consult a doctor and start taking measures to achieve pressure standards for your age, says KP, cardiologist, director of the Institute of Personal Medicine, University of Sechenov, MD Phillip Phillip .
Another long-term study called 16 years Lifestyle for Brain Health, LIBRA (lifestyle for maintaining brain health, Eng.) Shows that factors that reduce the risk of dementia include: being alert in your mind, a Mediterranean diet with a lot of t vegetables, fruit and fish, eat vegetable oil and drink unrefined alcohol.
At the same time, the researchers noted conditions that increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease: t cardiovascular diseases, low physical activity, diabetes, high levels of “bad” cholesterol, smoking, obesity, depression, kidney disorders.