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Fast lane life in evolution



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<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/5ce3bc144b7be.jpg" data-src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/ newman / gfx / news / hires / 2019 / 5ce3bc144b7be.jpg "data-sub-html ="Hanseniaspora uvarumone of the yeast yeast species that live without many genes that are thought to be essential for life otherwise. Credit: UC Davis, Department of Viticulture and Enology

<img src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/5ce3bc144b7be.jpg" alt = "Fast track life in evolution" = =Hanseniaspora uvarumone of the yeast yeast species that live without many genes that are thought to be essential for life otherwise. Credit: UC Davis, Department of Viticulture and Enology
Hanseniaspora uvarumone of the yeast yeast species that live without many genes that are thought to be essential for life otherwise. Credit: UC Davis, Department of Viticulture and Enology

Most living things have a series of genes that are dedicated to repairing their DNA, limiting the rate at which their genomes change through them. But scientists at Vanderbilt and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered an ancient lineage of lively yeasts that appear to have accumulated a very high load of mutations due to an unprecedented loss of dozens of genes involving repair errors. in DNA and cell division, considered from front to essential.


In a new study published May 21 in the open access magazine PLOS Biologygraduate Jacob L. Steenwyk, who worked in the laboratory of Professor Antonis Rokas at the Department of Biological Sciences at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, discovered a group of shoots in the genus Hanseniasporaclosely associated with baker's Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, has lost a large number of genes associated with the cell cycle and DNA repair processes. These losses are especially surprising not only because these genes are kept wide across living organisms but also because mutations in many human versions of these genes are increasing & t It dramatically rates different types of mutations and leads to cancer.

Steenwyk analyzes show that genomes Hanseniaspora young yeasts have lost hundreds of genes, including dozens relating to DNA repair, cell cycle, and metabolism. "It appears, in genomic terms, Hanseniaspora The yeast is the smallest, "says Steenwyk, adding:" There are very small genes and among the smallest numbers of any species genes in the lineage. These dramatic losses of so many genes are reflected in the biology of these yeasts. "

"The speed at which these genomes have mutated has been unprecedented and their cell division appears to be extremely fast but also somewhat inconsistent – an over-quality approach, as it were", says Rokas (see video shows the smaller cell size and faster and cell division Hanseniaspora species compared to baker's yeast. Due to the loss of these genes, Hanseniaspora Yeast has experienced many more changes in their DNA than their relatives and they bear a number of genomic scars; o natural mutations within (eg oxidative damage) and outside (eg UV radiation).

"We are excited to continue studying Hanseniaspora yeast ", says Steenwyk." There is much that we can learn about the basic life processes of these humiliating yeasts ".


A bigger loss: Today's yeast shoots are shed features of their 400-year-old ancestor


More information:
Steenwyk JL, DA Opulente, Kominek J, Shen X-X, Zhou X, Labella AL, et al. (2019) Loss of cell genes and extensive DNA repair in an ancient line of bipolar yeasts. PLoS Biol 17 (5): e3000255. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000255

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Fast lane life in evolution (2019, May 21)
retrieved 21 May 2019
from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-life-evolution-fast-lane.html

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