Sunday , October 2 2022

Malaria, unhealthy disease


Female anopheles mosquitoes with an individual pain can transmit the parasite that causes malaria or falaria. The mosquitoes do not know boundaries or boundaries. Their women are looking for blood to feed their infections and go from the body to the body that transfers the disease in a very difficult circle to eradicate. But not impossible

In Panama, malaria is a stalking disease, and most cases are reported in indigenous populations.

Parasites transmitting malaria into five species, according to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), but the most dangerous are Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, the latter can exacerbate the patient's condition of health and illness; to cause death

The Ministry of Health's epidemiological records (Minsa) show that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum circulate in the country, and when comparing the causes of people who introduced the disease until October this year with those reported last year for the One month, there is an increase of 48 cases. In 2017 there were 531, and this year the figure rises to 579.

This latest report also shows that the increase in people with malaria is expected, as Plasmodium vivax cases have been in the communities of the Tuira River, Darién province, in the center of Guna Yala (Honey, Puerto Obaldía a Playón Chico) and in the region of Gäbe Buglé and Colón.

The challenge

In view of this situation, the Minsa and Gorgas Institute for Health Studies (IECGES) took up the challenge of eliminating malaria in 2020 as part of the Strategic Plan for Elimination (PEEM) Malaria, which was signed last April between the health authorities and PAHO representatives, where it is proposed to implement the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous cases in the country.

Measures that need to be taken include active search of cases, integrity approach, community orientation and inter-home spraying.

In fact, data from Epidemiology show that, until last October, 549 incredible cases and 30 cases of imported malaria have been reported. And throughout 2017, there were 599 uncommon cases and 31 cases that were imported, that is, a total of 630 people introduced the disease.

In this sense, the Department of Minis Epidemiology said that the causes of the disease remain in the indigenous areas because they have not been able to eliminate the unfortunate focuses.

In addition, the key problem that they have encountered is the linguistic difference between the population of indigenous groups and health officers coming to these regions with prevention and control programs.

Epidemiology officers reported, during the workshops with the entities, that they showed the gaps in diagnosis, treatment, research and response, which is why the PEEM relies on these aspects.

Health Minister, Eric Ulloa, explained, as a country that we are not planning to promote, not only against the fight of the mosquito, the vector; but when searching for cases, we need to work with the community, promoters, with associations to get active cases and handle them quickly to reduce transfer.

He added that there were some obstacles, such as the spread of endemic areas, endemic areas that are located in international borders, the sociological characteristics of native populations, among others.

Suggestions and study

Meanwhile, the Icges scientist Nicanor Obaldía III It recommended a multi-sectoral approach including MINSA, Ministry of Housing, the Ministry of British Affairs, among other entities, to direct efforts towards endemic focuses (improving housing systems and drainage, as well as fuming and eliminating mosquito breeding sites).

He undertook a study that they hope they will be part of the foundation to propose the establishment of a molecular epidemiological surveillance system that has been imported or revived in Panama and Mesoamerica. [desde la península de Yucatán en México, Centroamérica y Panamá].

The researcher noted that this proposal intends to determine the genetic diversity and population structure, in order to understand the epidemiology or dynamics of the disease, as well as its transmission biology, which are key elements for implementing an elimination program successful.

De Obaldía III confirmed that the preliminary results of the name's research were confirmed Genetic diversity and population structure of human malaria parasites in Panama they indicate that the parasite of Plasmodium vivax that circulates in Panama during the period 2007-2012 in a "clonal" period (which is genetically linked or highly trans-linked), which states low range, and therefore lowered. These results provide evidence of progress towards eradication.

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