Lung cancer is the main cause of death of cancer worldwide and also in our country, where it accounts for 15% of the general population cancer deaths, which surpass colon cancer and chew cervix, and is only grown for breast cancer in the female population.
This high figure is associated with the fact that most cases are diagnosed in advanced stages as only 20% of cases are detected in the early stages with auxiliary treatment opportunities.
WHO CAN IT DEVELOP?
This disease affects more big men and smokers; but we have seen in recent years a growing change in the patient's population performance. Although male smokers still represent the majority of patients, there is an increasing proportion of women suffering from lung cancer and often have not smoked and younger.
In any case, the main cause of this type of cancer is still smoking, but at least 25% of cases occur in non-smokers due to factors such as environmental exposure to passive smoking, wood smoke, asbestos and some oncogenic viruses . Patients over 55, smokers, or re-open to tobacco smoke or combustion of organic compounds are considered to be at higher risk of lung cancer.
Those who have had other cancers, those with family members with cancer, and carriers of chronic diseases of the lungs such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) also show an increasing risk of cancer lungs.
WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS AND HOW DIAGNOSTIC?
In cases where clinically demonstrated, it presents cough, expectation with blood, lack of breath, and chest pain. It can be discovered as a casual perception of x-ray or geography, in the form of nodule modes or lungs.
To find a definitive diagnosis, a biopsy, a tissue analysis that is affected, needs to be performed. This study is carried out by a medical pathologist, who is responsible for deciding if there are malignant cells in the sample, and if so, indicate what type of cancer affects the patient. This step is essential for determining the prognosis and selection of the treatment. The decisions made by the pathology laboratory are to detect molecule markers, which are tests that look for the presence of some genes or proteins that have a change in cancer cells, which are involved in the oncogenic mechanism, and that can be a target of therapy, mainly in patients with higher stages of the disease.
In recent years, there has been a better understanding of the mechanisms that produce the disease and also its genetic and molecular bases, which have led professionals to apply each case better, and thus adjust treatment every patient. It has a heterogeneous disease, that is, patients can present with differences in their genetic profiles, in their clinical presentation and therefore respond differently to the available treatments.
The best strategy to reduce the possibility of developing lung cancer is to give up smoking. Those over 55 who have a history of smoking are at greater risk of lung cancer, so it is strongly recommended to consult with a specialist in pneumonia to carry out annual checks and get an opportunity to find out at an early stage.
It was advised: Dr. Iris D. Boyeras Navarro (M.N 118839). Co-ordinator of the Department of Oncology of the Territorial Medicine of Argentina. Specialist in Neumonology. Archeology Institute Ángel Roffo. University of Buenos Aires.