Thursday , May 19 2022

Black Flu – Worst Public Health Disaster New Zealand



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This is the worst disaster of New Zealand's public health, with more than 9,000 deaths in about eight weeks. The lack of "Spanish Flu" killed around 50 million people and hundreds of infected millions after he spread around the world in 1918-19. He killed almost three times as much as First World War, which lasted for four years.

Soldiers who were returning from the war in Europe were brought to New Zealand, especially to military training camps such as Trentham (77 deaths) and Threton (3220 cases treated , 177 deaths). Returning home, they spread it all over the country.

And similar to the Black Black Death of the 14th century, many victims become black. Death could occur within a day of disease contracting, but it was usually 5-10 days. Cities and cities became virtual spirit towns as the flu reached the top, with thousands suffering from home or in temporary hospitals. Public collections and tangi were prohibited in an attempt to prevent the spread of infection. Half Seland's population was captured.

Wellington had just over 730 deaths, with 660 victims buried in the Karori Cemetery. November 18 was the worst day of the city, when he died 63.

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Ironically, flu also helped to end the end of the war because it eventually helped to ultimately defeat Germany. The last final violation of Von Ludendorff failed in 1918, with a lot of soldiers hitting down. The Germans called Blitzkatarrh. The associated soldiers also caught it, but they had more resources.

Flu was not "Spanish" at all. It did not originate in Spain, nor was the country affected. But the Alfonso King of Spain was hit by the mild first wave of the pandemic in May and was restored, but his illness was reported extensively, and suddenly the epidemic had a name.

The Niagara ship has long been blamed for bringing flu to New Zealand. In fact, the epidemic was already here before it was docked in Auckland in October 1918.

After delivery

The Niagara ship has long been blamed for bringing flu to New Zealand. In fact, the epidemic was already here before it was docked in Auckland in October 1918.

It's probably taken to Europe in early 1918 by American troops. Historians believe that Kansas soldiers contract it first, from pigs or poultry. A Pandemic A / H1N1 virus analysis has shown that swine flu is closest. The mild first wave of the pandemic spreads across Central America and also to Europe.

It was sweeping around the world as a tidal wave, with many dying between May and August, but then the more severe second wave crashed at the same time in the northern and southern hemisphere in September and month October. It was different from any known flu pandemic in front of it.

There were some soldiers who had survived an awful war and came home because they had been injured, or because the war had expired, caught and died. Others returned to find a new parent, sibling, uncle or cousin. This is not the lovely home trip they had hoped for.

Her pregnancy arrives in New Zealand on the prime minister of William Massey and Sir Joseph Ward, his finance minister, who left in London for his home in September 1918 after a meeting of the Empire War Cabinet. They were on the Niagara ship, which was blocked in Auckland after the wiring captain Department of Health had many "Spanish flu" cases on board and would need help with 25 seriously ill people .

Sink is a spray atom, which contains a disinfectant, which is used during the epidemic. Dozens were used all over the country, but they were probably useless. Christchurch had the most efficient system, using sprayers powered by compressed air in 14 transmitted trays, and people walking through it.

G W Rice

Sink is a spray atom, which contains a disinfectant, which is used during the epidemic. Dozens were used all over the country, but they were probably useless. Christchurch had the most efficient system, using sprayers powered by compressed air in 14 transmitted trays, and people walking through it.

However, flu was already interrupting in New Zealand, and no point guaranteed the ship after October. In addition, most crew and passengers had recovered by that time and only two showed signs of pneumonia (which led to the deaths of the most victims of the pandemic). Two crew died later, along with a traveler. However, a dozen other people had already died in Auckland, having pneumonia before Niagara was dumped.

Many infected source of new infection in October was to reach Auckland from a number of bows from England, with hundreds of soldiers carrying the second wave virus more accurately. One ship had over 80 "serious" cases on arrival.

Auckland was the first to suffer this serious new wave. In the last days of October, it seems to be "extinguishing" across the city, with public services falling increasingly by absence.

Many victims were hit by pneumonia. Some loses all their hair. Nose wheat and delirium were common. Prostitution was often sudden and severe, as victims were unemployed. Whole families went down with him. Some people died within a day.

Those who survived sometimes took weeks to improve, and some were not fully restored. The poor housing, especially slump in Wellington and Auckland, worsened the infection rate.

Bodies were transported quickly to cemeteries, usually buried within 24 hours.

The medicine at Cathedral Square, Christchurch, where government standard flu medicine was supplied. Christchurch had a much lower death rate than many centers, partly due to the active actions of Herbert Chesson district health officer.

NECK MACBETH

The medicine at Cathedral Square, Christchurch, where government standard flu medicine was supplied. Christchurch had a much lower death rate than many centers, partly due to the active actions of Herbert Chesson district health officer.

Wellington's last death toll was more than 730, or a death rate of eight per 1000, slightly higher than Auckland. Christchurch had 458 deaths, a far lower rate of 4.9 per 1000. Auckland had 1163 deaths of a population of 148,192 people – a rate of 7.8 per 1000.

Wellington's initial reaction was ruined by delays, complacency, the absence of key officers, and a lack of urgency. By contrast, the active health district of Christchurch, Herbert Chesson, took steps to tackle the forthcoming epidemic without awaiting the official instructions of the Department of Health.

The mayor met, Henry Holland, the town clerk and the city's health inspector to recommend cleaning and disinfection of the city as a whole. He also asked the byelaw against having to be enforced in public. Although Wellington is still discussing whether to close schools, Chesson ordered them to close in Christchurch, along with theaters and entertainment areas, days before any official instructions. He also asked Christchurch pharmacists to extend their opening hours.

As far as New Zealand as a whole, the Department of Health believed that half of the population had infected. Some magnificent exceptions occurred in small towns such as Inglewood, Taumarunui, Taihape and Nightcaps, where 90 per cent of adults were low, and the result of high mortality rates.

The Talune stondin, which brought the flu to the West Samoa in November 1918. Almost everyone on the island caught the disease, and 8500 people died - one fifth of # the population.

After delivery

The Talune stondin, which brought the flu to the West Samoa in November 1918. Almost everyone on the island caught the disease, and 8500 people died – one fifth of # the population.

Mori's mortality rates were also strikingly high. New Zealand's current expert on the epidemic, Professor Geoffrey Rice, said: "Mori was seven times more likely than Europeans to die from flu."

It is difficult to find accurate figures, as many of the Mori's deaths have never been enrolled. Some tribes also refused to register their dead epidemic, as part of their protest against the war concession.

The epidemic was a rough test of Māori-Pakeha's connections. "It produced a good variety of reactions, ranging from an indifference to each other's concern, and showed racial tensions and screws that were usually kept slightly lower than the surface," said Rice .

"Although the Department of Health has made a great deal of effort to send help to the Māori settlements, designating military and medical doctors to the worst affected areas, most of Māori felt that they were ignored and marginalized by their Pākehā neighbors, if they were not deliberately avoided. The negligence of Māori settlements was, however, more often accidentally and temporarily than deliberately. "

Daily flu deaths in Wellington rose rapidly in the middle of November 1918, arriving on the 18th, when 63 people died.

BARBARA MULLIGAN

Daily flu deaths in Wellington rose rapidly in the middle of November 1918, arriving on the 18th, when 63 people died.

Unlike Australia, there was a much lower death rate. It strictly enforces maritime quarantine, preventing more than 300 ships and guarantees 80,000 passengers and crew for up to three weeks. The second severe wavelength escaped the epidemic, but was suffering from a third tone weaker in 1919. Its last death duty was around 14,000, with a rate of 2.3 per 1000 lower in the world.

Polynesian populations were particularly vulnerable: mortality rates ranged from 55 per 1000 in Fiji and 160 per 1000 in Tahiti to the worst mortality rate of 220 per 1000 in West Samoa, then under the control of New Zealand military .

Nearly everyone in the West Samoa is infected, and 8500 people died – one fifth of the population. Nearby America Samoa did not have one flu death, as it imposed a strict maritime quarantine.

The New Zealand forces had seized West Samoa of a German garrison at the beginning of the war, and was still under an armed administration when the angler of Talune Island arrived from Fiji in the beginning of November 1918. An active port officer in Apia had heard about the epidemic flu in Auckland which allowed all travelers to the bank, including six cases of severe flu. Two died within a few days, and a week later the flu spread with "amazing weird".

New West Samoa has been a great famine next year, due to the impairment of agriculture caused by the death of the flu. Recent research by John Ryan McLane, a transferable disease specialist and a health adviser with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, found that the combined death charge of both disasters had been up to a third of the Samoa pre-flu population. Witnesses recall bodies that lie along road sides and have folded in deep ponds. These mass graves are still sacred places in West Samoa.

* Mainly based on the Black Flu 1918. The worst disaster story of New Zealand's public health, by Geoffrey W Rice.

Emergency ambulances alongside Wellington Town Hall during the 1918 flu epidemic. Wellington authorities were slow to respond to the case, and the city suffered a high rate of death.

LIBRARY ALEXANDER TURNBULL, Ref: PAColl-7489-69

Emergency ambulances alongside Wellington Town Hall during the 1918 flu epidemic. Wellington authorities were slow to respond to the case, and the city suffered a high rate of death.

& WE LIKE LIKE THAT YOU?

Alfred Hollows was a medical order at the NZ Army Medical Association that was given temporary help at Abel Smith St, Wellington. In 1972 he remembered:

"At the height of the epidemic we had 60 in the men's ward with only four of us being orders, and 30 in the women's ward with three VAD (young women of the Voluntary Support Guardian) … We gave a half hour chart for high temperature, temperature , pulses and so on are taken and indicated, but only the sponge, sponge and sponge have the temperatures down.

"The only drugs we received were aspirin, digitalis and morphia. Many cases responded and were ready to release around a week, but those who did not go into coma and usually die within five to 10 days, few of which have heavy blood transfers.

"We were so busy that we lost the count of the dead from one day to another, but sometimes we went breathe and squash out for a short trip. I can testify that I am standing in in Wellington city center at 2pm on the afternoon of the week and there was no soul to see, no trams were running, no shops were open, and the only traffic was a fan with a white sheet attached to the side with a red cross he had painted on him, serving as an ambulance or a reserve. He was indeed the city of the dead. "

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