Monday , June 27 2022

Scientists are extreme: from experiments with heavy water to investigate the Earth's crust



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Extreme sports give athletes and spectators a lot of emotions. Scientists sometimes seem to have to jeopardize their lives when research is carried out even in the most dangerous corners of the planet.

The laboratories on the strangest places can only be found with stimulating inscriptions: "Human cloning is the stupid thing. All you can spend a night with someone and have children. T ”

Thousands of magnets with CERN tunnels are to investigate coral reefs – we are introducing the most impressive scientific laboratories and the most concerned about issues that are not threatened but without answering questions or puzzles on the planet.

Under the ground, it's noisy

Most of the world's laboratories are on the surface of the planet, but many research teams have decided to look deep on the ground.

The sun is constantly floating in cosmic rays, communication towers constantly penetrate radio waves, and radioactive rocks and gases emit radiation. One of the most unpleasant and bombed parts of the Earth's surface is the smoke. The deeper we are underground, the more these particles are absorbed by the ground filter. To study particle physics in the most careful and reliable way, scientists have to distance themselves from all this "sound", which is being sought to dig deep.

The deepest underground laboratory is in China – 2400 meters below the surface of the mountain. Its purpose is to look for a dark matter. Here, the most advanced research is being done, trying to find new and exciting evidence that can shake the world of physics.

Interesting studies are also taking place in Canada. Sadber's neutrino observatory (SNOLAB) can detect the neutrality produced in the Sun's heart. It is located at a depth of 2 km in an unused mine in Ontario, Canada.

1000 tonnes of heavy water (deuterium) is used for the experiment. Heavy water reacts with neutrinos to produce Cherenkov radiation. It was captured by 9600 tubes around the camera. The earth's crust protects sensitive scientific equipment from cosmic radiation, so it is possible to count the neutrinos emitted from the Sun.

Cherenkov radiation is the exposure of electromagnetic radiation, where particles with a charge (eg electron) pass through the speed of insulators at a rate greater than that of light phase in that material. The phenomenon was named after the Russian scientist, Pavel Cherenkov, named, along with his colleagues, in 1958, after the Russian scholar. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his profile

Taste of ash

Volcanic volcanoes lying in the depths of the earth can explode at any time, but volcanologists are willing to reveal their secrets.

To understand how the volcanoes work and why the volcanoes work, there is a great deal of information. Researchers need to have a good understanding of the structure of the planet, the chemistry of the rock, their interaction with other chemicals in the air or in the water. There is also a need to understand what causes underground movements.

While hunting for active volcanoes, volcanologists travel around the world, and for a few months of the year they live in campsites near volcanoes. This is very dangerous because the temperature of the lava can reach as many as 1000 degrees, and release a deadly dangerous gas – carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, which is decomposed from the rotten egg.

1991 After the Japanese volcano Undzen, Mauricio and Katia Kraffat and Harry Glicken died.

Clouds research

Laboratory and Pyramid Observatory Laboratory / Pyramid Observatory) is located in the Himalaya Mountains, at the foot of Everest. The energy of the solar collectors is used in a laboratory far from civilization. At a height of just over 5000 meters, nature and climate are not only different, but even the human body behaves somewhat abnormally. There is also a much better place here.

Researchers working in the international pyramid laboratory are involved in cosmic, climatic and biological research.

Underwater Laboratory

Aquarius Reef Foundation Laboratory, near the Florida island (US), is located at a depth of almost 15 meters underwater and is operated by Florida International University. At this depth, the weight is about two and a half times higher than on the surface. The laboratory is located close to one of the largest coral reefs in the world, giving it a unique look, and researchers can observe amazing ecosystems.

The inhabitants of this submarine base, called aquaplanes, dive underwater for five days. Under submerged pressure, they have to survive for up to two weeks until they eventually come to the surface. The laboratory has life support systems, energy generators, air compressors and communications equipment. At the time of leaving, before leaving the underwater station, it is released by pressure to make the human body adapt to normal conditions.

There is also astronaut training at the underwater station. A 9-meter wide buoy floating above the station provides compressed energy and air. The laboratory and living space is 2.8m wide and 13m long. The aqueduct enters the base by climbing up the room where the water is located.

Winter in Antarctica

In the summer, thousands of people come to Antarctica for experiments, but only a few hundred in winter.

The temperature of the Antarctic coasts reaches -12 ° C, and in the uplands even -40 degrees, so it's not surprising that scientists don't stay here all year round. In the summer, food and stock centers arrive without major problems, but after the winter the supply is cut, and the population must survive by eating only food to keep it; to freeze.

Life in the Antarctic centers is quite safe, but the biggest danger is the way out on the field. Research teams usually travel through sled or air to the experiment sites. Cold camping camps have to wait until the necessary data is collected.

The climate in Antarctica is ruthless. Glaciers can be surrounded by fog forming white darkness. In this case, it is almost impossible to separate the snow from the sky, it is hard to notice rocks, cliffs, steep slopes.

In the field, the research teams are staying in tents and barracks that have been specially adapted for weather. Inflatable mattresses, skin skin and sleeveless sleeping bags help keep you freezing. Every scientist has to eat 3500 calories a day by eating. All waste must be transported from the mainland to protect the natural environment.

Can you make a hole in the world?

CERN is the largest and most famous physics laboratory in the world. This underground physics laboratory on the border between Switzerland and France is one of the most advanced in the world. European nuclear research institutions (French) t Européenne arllwys la recherche nucléaire; CERN is involved in 22 countries.

This laboratory is currently the largest scientific instrument in the world – the famous Hadron Collider (UK). Large Hadron Collision, LHC), helping to study the structure of the universe. Ring LHC tunnel length is 27 km. It directs particle flow. The particles in a circle lawn and up to the speed of light are swung by 1,500 striking magnets, until the cactomus is exposed from the end.

Although some scientists say it is dangerous, CERN argues that there is no danger of creating a black hole in the world for these experiments. The purpose of the experiments is not the end of the world, but the search for answers about the origin and structure of the universe. The CERN team are trying to find out why there is more issue in the universe than antimatter, although in theory they should be equal. Experiments with Higgs boson, not so long ago, are also performed, helping to explain the nature of the mass. There are also attempts to reveal a dark matter mystery and dark matter.

Without pressure at 400 km

The International Space Station (ISS) is one of the most notable and notable achievements of mankind. At least three astronauts live permanently in this laboratory at orbit about 400 kilometers of Earth. When the Earth's powerful gravitational force breaks down, astronauts and equipment in TKS fly in a pressure-free state. Various experiments can take place in such a unique environment.

Microgeneration conditions also affect chemical behavior. Experiments with cells, small animals and even the astronauts themselves help scientists to better understand the impact that space has on organisms. TKS is a great place to try new technologies that will benefit future space missions.

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