Thursday , August 11 2022

Foul people lived high above sea level



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Scientists have found evidence that the old people, people Denisov, live high above the sea in Tibet. Previously, the ability to survive in such extreme conditions was associated with our species – Homo sapiens.

As BBC News writes, ancient ancestors seem to have passed a gene that helps modern people to survive at high altitudes. Details of the study are published in Nature.

Denisov's people were a mysterious species living in Asia over a decade ago, when modern people like us have spread around the world.

So far, their only remains – pieces of bones and teeth – found in Siberia, Denisov Cave. However, DNA has shown that they are a different branch of the human family.

Now scientists have identified the remains of Denisov people elsewhere. The lower jaw was discovered in 1980 Baishiya Karst in the cave, at a height of 3280 m on the Tibetan plateau. It's back to 160 thousand. years.

One of the authors of the article, Jean Jacques Hublin, of Max Planck's Evolutionary Anthropology Institute in Leipzig, Germany, said it was a great surprise to show that primitive people lived so high. The Neanderthals, people of Denisov, had limited capabilities in the early Homo sapiens to survive in extreme conditions.

Denisov's people were a mysterious species living in Asia over a decade ago, when modern people like us have spread around the world.

“If we look at the situation in Europe, there are many places where Neanderthals lived. The most known – at 2,000 m. It's not so high, and it is clear that the Neanderthals have come here in the summer, perhaps because of hunting, ”said the researcher.

He said, "There is a plateau … and resources were enough to enable people to live there and not only come occasionally," Denisov found on the Tibetan plateau.

Although scientists could not find any remains of DNA left over, they were able to extract protein from one tooth. An analysis of ancient proteins, according to another author Frider Welker from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, showed that the lower jaw belongs to a hominin population closely related to the people of Denisov.

This discovery may explain why the human remains found in the Denisov Cave have a genetic variation known to protect against hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) at high altitude. It was part of the puzzle because Denisov's cave in Siberia is only 700 m above sea level.

Human Denisov's lower jaw was found in Baarsiya Gars Cave, a Tibetan plateau at 3280 m. / Jean Jacques

Human Denisov's lower jaw was found in Baarsiya Gars Cave, a Tibetan plateau at 3280 m. / Jean Jacques

Today's sherpas, Tibetans and neighboring populations have the same genetic variation that was probably encountered when Homo sapiens mixed with the people of Denisov thousands of years ago. Indeed, this variant of the gene appears to have won a natural selection because it has given an advantage.

"Only by living in such an environment can we guess a mutation that is favorable to breathe in an oxygen deprived environment through natural selection," prof. J. Hublin. "And our scenario is quite likely to explain how this mutation has reached the current Tibetans."

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