Johns Hopkins's researchers indicate that chronic dry eye, a state where natural tears fail to blew their eyes are adequate, slow down the reading rate and disruptly on day-to-day tasks that ask for a visual focus for long periods.
In a study of 186 adults, published on November 15, online Optometry and Science Vision, eye dry experts at the Johns Hopkins Medication say that the condition can slow the pace of reading an individual by as much as 10 percent and can make it difficult to read for more than 30 minutes.
According to lead researcher, Esen Akpek, MD, a Ph.D. of Ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, dried eye affects millions of adults in the United States, mostly 50 years old and older, causing ocular discomfort and visual problems "Many patients have perfect visual patients on standard eye tests but complain that they can not drive at night or in unfamiliar areas, read large print or do computer work," he said. Akpek suspects that traditional, short-time 75-word eye tests for the speed of reading and accuracy, have failed to reveal the problems cause dry eyes because visual disturbance, or as a matter of urgency, degrades enough to measure after longer periods of time.
"We suspected that people with a dry eye can not maintain good reading performance mainly because their tears can not redirect their eyesight eyes quickly enough," said Akpek.
To prove this, Akpek and the team recruited the 186 participants of the Dry Disease Area Clinic and Dry Eye Clinic at the Llygad Wilmer Institute. All participants were 50 or older, and had not used prescription or over-the-counter prescriptions in the 24 hours before testing. The age group had a mean age of 63.2, 116 participants had a significant clinical dry eye, and 39 symptoms were detected with dry eye but did not have clinical findings, and 31 participants were activated without a dry eye such as controls. Of the participants, 131 with dry eye butter and 23 management participants were female.
All participants responded to a Surveying Area Disease Index questionnaire – a 12 question survey asking for patients' symptoms such as eye discomfort, and the quality of vision and environmental contributors to eye complaints, such as wind or smoke.
Sezen Karakus, MD, an assistant professor of ophthalmology at John Eye Hopper Institute Johns Hopkins and a member of the research team, administered a new reading study created by Akpek colleague, Pradeep Ramulu, MD, Ph.D., an ophthalmologist associate teacher at School Johns Hopkins University Medicine and the main department of glaucoma at the Llygad Wilmer Institute. In 7,200 words, the new reading test is much longer and takes participants about 30 minutes to complete.
The results showed that the 116 participants with a significant dry eye clinically read less words per minute than the controls or those with only dry eye symptoms. The reading rate was 32 minutes a minute less in patients with clinically significant dry eye, with an average of 240 words per minute compared to the controls and patients with eye symptoms dry but without clinical findings, which read the same rate of 272 words per minute.
Akpek says that the team also finds that an ongoing visual function – such as reading, driving or surgery is performing – is difficult on everyone's eyes because it changes the blink rate, which spreads and replenish tears over the gornbilen. However, the change in the weather seriously affects people with a dry eye.
At the beginning and end of the experiments, Karakus collected small molecules of tears from each participant for future studies, hoping he will offer clues to precise mechanisms that cause this visual difficulty and possible treatments .
Akpek says that diagnosis and treatment of dry eyes are often complicated, in part because many conditions can cause it, including overturned glands and a systemic inflammation of rheumatological disease.
"The most effective treatments are those that are tailored to the root eye causes, the severity of the tear deficit and the activities of the patient," he said. People who experience dry eye symptoms are often visually impaired, visually varying and drought, count on the counters, but they will do the best if they experience professional tests and diagnoses.
Current treatments may include prescription, lifestyle and environmental changes, and installing surgical plugs or other surgical procedures to increase the production of fire.
Unfortunately, dry eye is a lot of misunderstandings, says Akpek. Many people do not deal with their symptoms of discomfort, such as a tightening or variation vision, to dry eye. There is much more self-treatment with over-over exchanges.
However, it's easy to get a dry eye test, says Akpek. With a simple questionnaire like the one used in this study, or a few defects in the eye during a normal examination, any ophthalmologist or optometrist should be able to identify a dry eye and refer patients for treatment.
In the future, Akpek is hoping to find some clues to the specific causes of this disease in the tears collected by the study participants. He would also like to repeat similar experiments in younger people to prove how dry eye could interfere with learning and productivity.
Other researchers involved in this study include Priya M. Mathews of the Wilmer Eye Institute of Medicine, the University of Johns Hopkins and the University of Columbia College of Doctors and Surgeons; Devika Agrawal and Pradeep Ramulu from the Wilmer Eye School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University of Medicine; Claudia Henrich of the Wilmer Eye School of Medicine, the University of Medicine of Johns Hopkins and the University of Ulm, Ulm of Germany.
This research was supported by Allergan (IIT-00511) and the Jerome Center L. Greene Sjögren.