Vitamin D and omega-3 supplements prevent cancer or heart disease, a new study finds, the latest in the annual debate over their benefits.
The test enrolled more than 25,000 Americans of different ethnicities who were over 50 and had no history of cancer, heart attack, stroke or other types of heart disease.
Participants gave a daily diet of vitamin D, omega-3 or placebo randomly. After more than five years, there was no significant heart disease or cancer between those taking additives and those taking placebo.
Lead investigator, Dr. JoAnn E. Manson, head of the Preventative Medincine Division at Brigham and Women's Hospital and a teacher at Harvard Medical School, is discriminating himself because he is the biggest random test of the world .
Previous research has looked at bone health or has used high-risk populations, but added, but its study "the main aim is to look at whether vitamin D and omega-3 could reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease" in Typical people without a history of such conditions.
Results of VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL – known as VITAL – were presented in the 2018 American Heart Society Scientific Sessions in Chicago and published on Saturday at New England Journal of Medicine.
Last year's VITAL trial was carried out last year, including more than 8,000 participants.
Research has suggested that the fatty acid omega-3 can prevent cancers and cardiovascular diseases, says the study, it was suggested that vitamin D to reduce the risks of cancer due to There are fewer cancer cases in countries with high sun exposure. Such observational studies are exposed to scary factors for a lower cancer rate in places where there is more connection with the sun, because people who spend more time out are most likely also take part in other healthy habits such as exercise.
"If you are already taking one or two of these supplements, there is no clear reason to give it up. If you want to consider starting, our recommendation is to talk to your healthcare provider , but this does not need to be done urgently, "said Manson.
There is little protection of vitamin D
The study was a major clinical random trial, and Brian Power, a senior honorary dietitian at the University College of London Hospital and a non-research nutrition lecturer. He described in an email as "the gold standard for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions of this type; prejudice and trauma are reduced."
Looking at moderate to high pieces of 2,000 IUs of vitamin D, 1,617 people developed cancer; Of these, there were 793 on a regular basis there were vitamin D advisors, and 824 in the placebo group.
In addition, 905 participants developed major cardiovascular events such as stroke, heart attack or death of cardiovascular disease. Of these 396 took vitamin D supplements daily; The placebo group had 409 cases of large cardiovascular events.
The researchers came to the conclusion that the difference was too small and says there is no connection between vitamin D and a low risk of large cardiovascular events or invasive cancer.
Anastasia Z. Kalea, a senior lecturer at the Center for Cardiovascular Genetics at the University College of London that was not part of the study, said the results were "very important but not surprising." Both conclusions were suspicious, and the trial supported them, he added.
The study shows that vitamin D additives can not stop cancer, and the differences in the placebo groups and vitamin D are very small, says Kalea.
However, over the period of the study, deaths of cancer were significantly reduced by 25% for those who took vitamin D. supplements Further research to this perception is needed, but Manson of & # 39; It is possible to explain that vitamin D is affecting tumor biology, making it less likely that the tumor grows.
Recent research has also solved the theory that vitamin D improves bone health and prevents cuts, but some experts disagree with this, indicating small time periods and sample sizes as well as inadequate doses.
Some benefit from omega-3
In the omega-3 analysis, invasive cancers were found in 820 participants taking daily supplements of 1 grams of omega-3 and 797 who had a placebo.
In addition, 386 people took 1 gram of omega-3 cardiovascular events during the study, as did 419 people take placebo
But for specific heart attacks, findings showed an overall reduction of 28% in those taking omega-3 additions. For African-African, the study found a 77% reduction in a daily associated heart attack of omega-3 supplements.
In people who do not eat one or two fish per week recommended, the supplements had been linked to a 40% reduction in heart attack. But for people who followed the recommendation, there was no such society.
Manson recommends trying to get omega-3 from a healthy diet that incorporates fish. But people who do not eat fish or who do not like to talk to a healthcare professional about the option of omega-3 supplements.
"It could be an opportunity to find out," said Manson, and therefore needs to be repeated. But if he confirmed that this could point to a promising approach to reduce health differences. "
Nathan Davies, who is leading the Clinical Nutrition Health and Public Health program at the University College of London, said these findings are not "radical conclusions in any way. There could be benefits there, but not they are as clear as possible. "
The findings show that omega-3 oils are not harmful, Davies added that he was not part of the research.
However, he noted that the study could benefit from a longer period. "You're always for longer, especially if you're looking at cancer."
It also does not analyze whether there is a dosage dependency effect and a higher dose could lead to better outcomes, Davies said.
"A diet is more important than an attachment. If you have a good diet, you will not need supplements," he says, adding that this is not always practical, as factors such as income and availability can also affect diet.
Victoria Taylor, senior dietitian at the British Heart Foundation, wrote in e-mail, "We do not recommend taking vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent heart disease and cyclical, and the findings of this study support our advice.
"If you eat a healthy, balanced diet from the Mediterranean style, you should be able to get all the nutrients you need to protect from heart disease and circulation," he added.