This Monday, November 12 marks World Day against pneumonia, a respiratory condition that ended in the lives of around 920,000 children in the world in 2015, according to World Health Organization figures. Inhalation difficulties, fever periods, abnormal chest breathing or fever periods are some of the symptoms that children get when they suffer from this disease.
Eduardo Ortega – Barría is a Panamanian pediatrician It explains that pneumonia is caused by the pneumococcal virus, which is also responsible for meningitis, which is the infection of the membrane that runs the brain. "In addition – the doctor's explanation – produces otitis that is a child ear infection, although not slaughtered, is the most common case of consulting and using antimicrobial antibodies and resistant antibiotics" .
Hand laundering, avoiding contact with people with cough or flu photos, maintaining ventilation areas, staying away from people who smoke and keep the vacuum timetable Current is the best recommendations to avoid getting pneumonia. At this last point, Ortega – Barria, vice president and director of Research and Clinical Development for Latin America and the Caribbean from GSK Vacunas, ensures that Colombia is one of the countries with & # 39 ; The highest vaccination attention is against this respiratory infection.
According to national health authority figures, Colombia's health system saves more than 43 million dollars each year due to the prevention of vaccination by pneumococcal diseases (reducing mortality and morbidity due to multiple infection, pneumonia and otitis media).
What are pneumonia?
I can explain it in this way: the lungs contain sacks, of the alveolus name, and the sack is full of air. When the person puts air, that bag is full of oxygen and what is inside the blood, which is not good, namely CO2, is leave our tissue to the alveolus and oxygen comes from the alveolus to our tissues, so Breathing is important: sac CO2, I can give oxygen. When you have pneumonia, that pouch has to fill in with a liquid and fill it with a bus, and that pouch can not only accept oxygen and air, but can not pull it, because it is full of a bus and full of fluid.
How are the bacteria that cause this disease?
Toddlers get in the throat and the child, with some mechanism, that the bacteria get to the trachea reach the bronchi and the alveolus is multiplying and cause pneumonia. Vaccines prevent the occurrence, because it removes the bacteria of the neck. And by removing it from the throat it prevents it from entering, but also prevents it from being transferred to people who have not been vaccinated.
One of the basic aspects is vaccination, How do I administer doses to avoid the appearance of this infection?
There are three doses of the vaccine: within two months the first dose is given, the second is four months and the third one is one year old. The three are important, especially the latter, as the first two protect you during your life period where you are more likely, but the third gives long-term protection to you, then moms and fathers have to take their children to vaccinate, but they must also commit that they have to take it to be vaccinated for the three doses.
Who is the most affected by this disease: children?
We know from studies that have been done elsewhere that affect children more than girls, but in Latin America, in middle-income countries, it equally affects boys and girls.
And for ages?
The biggest outbreak of disease in the child is under two years old. Logically, that child matures its immune system, is vaccinated, reduces the peak of the disease, and re-appears at age 65, it only affects what is affected The young child is different from what affects the elderly adult, but what is even more interesting is that if you're a child vaccination, do you protect the older adult. What is called herd protection, indirect protection: if the child is vaccinated from his home in turn, I'll protect the grandparents, so you have to We vaccinated the child, because of one vaccination, protecting two and protecting up to three. Indirect benefit in pneumococcal vaccination.
What is this disease rate of death?
This is the most common cause of death in children under five, 16% of deaths in that range are the result of pneumonia. Over 1.5 million people die each year and most are children.
What is known about the situation in the country in the face of pneumonia?
In Colombia before the vaccine there were 400 meningitis per annum, today there has been a 90% reduction in cases of meningitis. Children in pneumonia's death fell by 52%. We know that there are 48,000 cases of pneumonia each year in Colombia, we know that half of pneumonia deaths have disappeared thanks to vaccination against pneumococcal. There is also a 43% reduction in otitis, in Colombia, before the vaccine there were 750,000 cases of otitis per annum, which has been reduced.
At a regional level, what is your reading of the Expanding Immunization Program that has developed in Colombia?
Colombia has a vaccine program that is not only a leader in the region, but it can be compared to the most developed countries in the world and Colombia's non-colonial antigens do not affect the Colombian population . In the last ten years, Colombia has introduced vaccines for HPV, cough in pregnant women, hepatitis A, rotavirus, pneumococcus and chicken chicken. Which country has introduced six vaccines over the past ten years? In that sense, we have to congratulate the Colombian immunization program and the Ministry of Health for the great work they had done in the life-saving life.
In recent years operators' movements say vaccines cause some kind of autism spectrum among children. How true is this?
There are hundreds of independent studies conducted by international organizations, such as the US Academy of Sciences, with hundreds of thousands of individuals having studied that show no relationship between vaccine and autism. The only relationship there was a doctor for a series of very small cases that were falsified.
Subsequently, It was shown that a relative of this person has specific interests, the announcement was withdrawn and the person was punished by the English Medical Association.