Pneumonia is a type of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. It can be prevented by immunization, adequate nutrition and environmental control. Despite this, pneumonia is the main cause of death in under-fives worldwide.
According to the World Health Organization Bulletin (WHO), pneumonia (a group of disorders caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium, also known as pneumococcus) is the individual case that leads to infant deaths.
According to the international health agency, this pathology accounts for 18% of all deaths under the age of five. Pneumonia affects children and their families, but its largest prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
And according to the WHO, the immune system of children under five has not fully developed, so they can not protect themselves quickly from infections. As a result, this bacterium is responsible for up to a million deaths in children under five. Similarly, it is estimated that there are 980,000 and 1,500,000 annual cases related to Latin America and 28,000 annual deaths in the region.
Symptoms of pneumonia. The symptoms of viral pneumonia and those that are caused by the bacteria are similar, although some viral pneumonia may be more frequent than those of the bacteria. Among them, fast or difficult breathing, cough, fever, cat, loss of appetite, wearing (more common in viral infections).
In cases of severe pneumonia, children may have isostostic reactions (depression or lower chest recovery during inspiration). In babies, pneumonia can cause inability to eat food or fluid, as well as loss of awareness, hypothermia, and seizures.
Risk and prevention factors. Most healthy children can fight the infection through their natural defenses, but children who are not infected are at increased risk of pneumonia. The child's immune system could be weakened due to malnutrition or malnutrition, especially in non-breastfeeding babies only.
The previous presence of measles such as measles or asymptomatic HIV infections also increases the risk of a child's acquisition of pneumonia.
The following environmental factors also increase children who are pneumonia: indoor air pollution caused by biomass (such as firewood or shoulder), fuel for cooking or heating & # 39 home, living in overcrowded homes and tobacco use. the parents.
Regarding the fact that this Monday, November 12 is World Day Against Pneumonia, the United Nations International Crisis Fund for Children, for its acronym in English (UNICEF), has published a report Focusing on the importance of treatment prepared by Dr. Hayalnesh Tarekegn.
This research explains that pneumonia is related to fever, cough or breathe breathe. Also with older people and children from 0 to 5 years old.
UNICEF explains that, although it is a dangerous disease, it can be faced with adequate resources. "X-ray or analysis can detect it and antibiotic can be paralysis," the document explains.
Dr. Hayalnesh confirms these findings: "If we are acting soon and we are sure we are facing pneumonia, we can save many lives." In fact, the data indicates that correct treatment reduces 42% of infant mortality.
"In UNICEF we know that reaching time is determined, that is, if we could identify the symptoms in a precise and rare way and give the appropriate medication, we could drop to almost half of more than 2,400 lives that & This disease takes them daily. Because 24 hours can be essential for many children, because this reality can be far away, but today and in a year will suffer more than 800,000 children ".
Pneumonia day: let's finish with it. Although the disease can be dangerous for children and adults, vaccines can reduce the potential of pneumococcal pneumonia due to the positive effect of this medication.
In this sense, the medical manager of the Pfizer Vaccines for the Caribbean, Dr. Jorge LaRotta, highlights that vaccination is one of the most cost effective health interventions and the best way to protect this disease. It is estimated that immunization against pneumococcal in children between 2011 and 2020 will prevent 21 million cases and save 1.5 million lives in the 73 poorest countries in the world.
The effect of vaccination
Vaccination as a preventative measure becomes more important if one of the opinion that all infections caused by this disease can not be easily treated with antibiotics. "Even with early control, the bacteria that cause pneumococcal can withstand treatments such as penicillin. This means that the treatment will be more difficult and expensive in some cases," explains Dr. Jorge LaRotta. Restraint can help reduce the number of hospitals associated with each pneumonia case.