Saturday , July 2 2022

What is a gamma ray? It can destroy tumor DNA and galaxy light – Quest Science – cnBeta.COM


The time of Beijing on December 18 news, according to foreign media reports, gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like radio waves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and microwaves. Gamma rays can be used for cancer treatment, and gamma-ray bursts are a major focus on astronomy research. Electromagnetic radiation can be transmitted in the form of waves or contaminated particles and different frequencies.

This air panorama is a collection of data collected by NASA Gamma Space Thelescope Fermi Fermi for two years, showing the universe's appearance under gamma cones.

Map of gamma ray storm concept map.

The range of wavelength coverage is called the electromagnetic spectrum and it is generally split into seven parts. As the wavelength reduces, the energy and frequency increase. Usually, the seven sections are radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma gels.

Gamma rays are mounted higher in the electromagnetic spectrum than "soft X-rays", with times greater than 1018 Hz per second and wavelengths less than 100 pixels ( 1 picometer equals 1 trillion meters).

Gama kisses and X-ray rays in the electromagnetic spectrum overlap each other, so it is difficult to distinguish between the two. In the field of astrophysics, scientists will force a line to distinguish between particular wavelength rays into X-rays, and below a specific wavelength is gamma rays. The gamma and X-rays are high energy radiation that can destroy biological tissue. However, almost all gamma rays in the universe are blocked by Earth's atmosphere.

Find a gamma ray

The first gamma ray was discovered in 1900 by the French chemist, Paul Villard when studying radiation radiation. A few years later, the pharmacist and physicist Ernest Rutherford proposed the name "gamma ray" according to the alpha and the radiation produced by the nuclear reaction. This name has to be saved so far. .

Source and impact of gamma ray

Gamma rays are mainly produced by four nuclear reactions: nuclear combustion, nuclear fights, alpha decay, and gamma decay.

Nuclear is a source of energy for the sun and other stars. The reaction is made in several stages. With high temperatures and extreme pressure, four protons or nuclei nuclei are forced to be dynamized into a helium nucleus with two protons and two neutrons. The mass of the helium nucleus is about 0.7% less than the mass of the original four protons. According to the Einstein mass equation E = mc ^ 2, this part of the mass difference is converted to energy, and two thirds of the energy are gamma. The form of the horse rays is released. (The remaining energy is released in neutrinos, a very weak interactive particle with almost zero zero). At the end of the unloading period, after the hydrogen fuel is switched off, the elements produced by a nuclear edge will become heavier and heavier until the iron element. But the energy generated at each stage will also decrease.

Another source of gamma rays is a nuclear fights, which should be familiar to people. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory defines nuclear fights as: a heavier atomic nucleus is cut to an equal halves equally, which in turn becomes the nucleus of the lighter element. This process includes the effect of other particles. When the heavier nucleus such as uranium and thromium is bomed by other particles, they will be split into lighter elements such as sputum and sputum. The new particles produced by the bombs will hit another heavy nucleus and form a chain reaction. Energy is also released during this process because the mass amount of the particles produced by the spread is lower than the mass of the original heavy nucleus. This part of the mass is also turned into energy, in the form of kinetic energy, neutrinos and gamma rays of a smaller kernel.

Alpha decay and gamma decay can also produce gamma rays. Alpha decay occurs when a heavy nucleus releases a nucleus 氦 -4, the number of atoms decreases, and atomic weight decreases from 4. This process leads to too much of energy in the nucleus, and too much energy is released as gamma rays. If there is too much energy in the nucleus, gamma decay occurs, emitting gamma gamma without changing the pay or mass composition of the nucleus.

Gamma ray therapy

Gamma rays can destroy tumor cell DNA and are sometimes used to treat malignant tumors. However, care must be taken when using this therapy because gamma rays also destroy the DNA of healthy tissue cells around.

One way to maximize the exposure of radiation of cancer cells in reducing radiation to healthy cells is to have multiple beams of gamma cones from different directions passing through a linear accelerator to a small area. Here's how the CyberKnife and Gamma Gamma Knife Therapy works.

Radiosurgery Gamma Knife uses a special device to hit almost 200 calls on radiation on brain tumors or other targets. Each beam of radiation has a slight impact on tissue and brain that goes through, but the radiation dose at the junction is large.

Gamma Ray and Astronomy

Gamma ray explosions are one of the most interesting sources of gamma rays. This is a remarkable high-tech astronomical event, which ranges from just a few thousand miles to a few minutes. Observers first observe this phenomenon in the 1960s, and now it is seen that about once a day.

NASA stressed that gamma ray injections are "the most energy-shaped form of light". Its brightness is hundreds of times higher than a typical supernova, about one trillion of sun time.

According to Robert Patterson, a professor of astronomy at the University of Missouri State, scientists believed once gama-gam explosions came from the end of the evaporative black hole. But scientists now believe that gamma rays ammunition should result from dense coatings such as neutrons. There are also theories that radiation bursts can also occur when compulsory stars fall and form black holes.

Regardless of its source, the gamma ray radiation produces enough energy to light up a whole galaxy in a moment. However, as the Earth's atmosphere can block most gamma rays, they can only observe their existence of high observation balloons and cover telescopes.

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