The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global public health problem that has claimed 35 million lives to date, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
Last year alone, nearly a million people around the world died of a case related to this virus.
Around 37 million people carry it – 70% live in Africa – a 1.8 million contracted in 2017.
AIDS disease is diagnosed only by those who have been infected with HIV.
As it has begun to spread in the 80's, all kinds of crazy ideas about how it is transmitted and how it has suffered have fed prejudices and stigmas on those who have to live with & # 39; r this virus.
On World AIDS Day, BBC World dismantles some of these legends.
1. If I'm close to people with HIV, I can get tired
This misconduct has led to long-term discrimination against those with HIV and, despite all awareness campaigns, 20% of Britain still believed in 2016 that this virus could be passed through skin or saliva contact from someone who carries it.
However, HIV It is not transmitted by touching, tears, sweat, saliva or urine.
It is not either by:
- Breathe an air.
- Hugs, pig or hands shake.
- Share knives
- Share a water source.
- Sharing personal items
- Use the same machines or accessories to perform exercises in the gym.
- Use the same toilet or door treatment.
HIV has spread if it is exchanges fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk with the carriers of the virus.
2. There are alternative medicines for HIV
Absolutely false. Other medicines like shower after sex o get them with a virgin they do not act against HIV.
The myth of "virgin cleansing," who took part in sub-Saharan Africa, parts of India and Thailand, is particularly dangerous.
He has urged the rape of young women and even babies, putting them at risk of HIV.
It is believed that this emerges in the sixteenth century Europe, when syphilis and gonorrhea spread. It also does not work with these diseases.
Prayers and religious rituals can help people deal with difficult situations, but at the medical level they have no effect on the virus.
3. Moscitos can transfer HIV
Although HIV is spread through the blood, a number of studies show that the virus is not transmitted through foods or insects that suck blood for two reasons:
1) When they bite, they do not spray the person's blood or the animal they are going on from before.
2) HIV only Survival of a very short period inside these insects.
So even if there are many mosquitoes in one area and there is a high number of HIV, both factors are not related to each other.
4. I will not be infected by verbal
Verbal is really less dangerous than other types of sexual acts. The infection rate is below & # four times every 10,000 times.
But it is possible to have the virus by having a verbal sex with a man or woman carrying it, so doctors also recommend using condoms to exercise.
5. If I use a condom, I do not get it
And condoms can not avoid exposure to HIV if they break, slip or discharge during sexual intercourse.
That is why successful campaigns against AIDS are those not only focused on encouraging people to use condoms but also have a test a receive treatment immediately if they prove positive.
According to the WHO, one in four people with HIV do not know he has it, that does mean that there are 9.4 million that represent a major risk of interference.
6. If I do not have symptoms, then I do not have the virus
Can a person who live 10 or 15 years old with HIV without presenting any symptoms. You may also experience a type of flu that includes fever, headache, rash or throat in the first few weeks after the infection.
Other symptoms may appear as the infection weakens the immune system: swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, fever, diarrhea and cough.
Without treatment, you can also develop serious diseases such as tuberculosis, y Cryptococcal meningitis, The severe bacterial infections a cancers such as lymphoma or Kaposi sarcoma, among others.
7. Those with HIV die young
Those who know they have HIV and continue the treatment more and more healthy life.
The United Nations Joint Program on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS) says that the 47% of those living with HIV have the viral load stopped, that is, the amount of virus present in your blood is so small that it can not be found in normal analytics.
These people they can not transfer the virus to others, even through the sexual path.
However, if not treated, HIV levels can rise again and be detected.
According to WHO, 21.7 million people living with the virus received antiretroviral treatment in 2017 – in 2010 it was only eight million – around 78% of HIV positive patients who know their diagnosis .
8. Mothers with HIV will always transfer it to children
Not necessarily mothers who have viral load loads can be excluded without transferring HIV.