The US groundwater supply is less than what was originally thought, according to a new research study involving the University of Arizona's hydrologist.
The study provides important insights into deep deep deep water depths in some of the most prominent sedimentary basins across the United States.
Research was published by scientists from Saskatchewan University, the University of California and California, Santa Barbara, November 14th Environmental Research Letters.
"We found that groundwater supplies in the US do not go as deep as previously reported, resulting in lower groundwater for human and agricultural use," said Jennifer McIntosh, University High School High School and a professor of hydrology and sciences atmospheric
Drilling deeper wells may not be a long-term solution to compensate for rising groundwater requirements.
"We show that there is potential to contaminate deep and deep deep water in areas where the oil and gas industry sprays or is very close to waste waters – these aquifers," said McIntosh. "These beautiful water supplies are already being used from the" bottom up "& gas & oil activities.
"Groundwater is the main source of domestic water supply for around half of the people living in the United States. About 40 per cent of all water used in the United States is for agriculture has irrigated from groundwater, "said McIntosh. "In Tucson, Arizona, about half of our drinking water comes from groundwater."
Many rural areas in Arizona and other parts of the United States depend entirely on groundwater for agricultural and domestic use, he said.
To find out how deep groundwater extends, scientists analyze water chemistry data from the US Geological Survey for 28 key sedimentary bases in the United States and look at the correlation between deep deep depth and the depth of transformation between fresh and marshy water.
So far, the focus has been on reducing water tables, the lead author, Grant Ferguson, the main Global Water Futures project researcher led by Saskatchewan University.
In parts of the western western geologists known as the Basin and Range Province, fresh groundwater extends down on an average of 3,400 feet, says McIntosh. The province includes Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico, and extends to parts of California, Utah, Oregon and Idaho.
The new research found that the average depth of transmission of fresh groundwater to roughly was U.S. generally around 1,800 feet, which contradicts previous studies suggesting that fresh groundwater extends down to 6,500 feet.
Especially in parts of the east of the United States, the team found that the transformation of fresh water to rough seafarers took place for less than 1,000 feet. In such regions, drilling wells does not respond long-term to the need for additional fresh water, the team wrote.
"There are a number of cases where you could get a kilometer or deeper ground for fresh groundwater, but there are other areas in the United States, where they may have up to 200 or 300 meters in length of saline groundwater – in your essence is made in terms of water resources, "said Ferguson, associate professor at Saskatchewan University in Saskatoon, Canada.
In addition, a water, chemical or sand injection that occurs with hydraulic breaking, or "fracking," or a wastewater injection can drive waters that contain hydrocarbons to adjoining areas that contain drinking water.
Co-authored Debra Perrone, assistant environmental studies professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara said, "In some basins, spray sources are set worse than the transformation of fresh water to roughly."
The amount of separation between groundwater resources and oil and gas activities to protect groundwater will require additional research, the team will write.
Based on their perceptions for the US, the authors suggest that the amount of fresh earthwater available worldwide may be less than what was thought of . They indicate that more than five billion people are living in rare water areas, many of which depend on groundwater and, in some cases, much more water has been taken out of a groundwater basin than it is; n come in.