In this picture provided by James Balog / Extreme Ice Survey and Matthew Kennedy, the Stein glacier in Switzerland in 2015. Over the last decade, scientists and photographers keep back to the world's glaciers, watching them & Everything is a fight with every visit. Now they want other people to see what motivates them in a series of before and after pictures.
WASHINGTON – Scientists see the smell of surprise in the Earth's polar regions at times that they do not expect, such as winter, and in unexpected places, such as eastern Antarctica.
New studies and reports published this week at a major Earth Science conference paint one of the most intense illustrations of dramatic warming in the Arctic and Antarctica. Alaskan scientists described The Associated Press, March, on Tuesday that there were no problems that were melted and weird, not including in front, including permafrost that never reveals & # 39; This winter in winter and the wildlife of the past.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ministry released on Tuesday its annual arctic report card, giving details of the second warmest year on an Arctic record and there were problems, including the recording of low winter sea ice in parts of the region, increases toxic algae flowers, which are usually a warm water phenomenon, and weather changes in the rest of the country that can be attributed to what is happening in North Wales.
"The Arctic has the most unprecedented change in human history," said lead author's report, Arctic's main research for NOAA, Emily Osborne, on Tuesday.
What's happening is a big one, said Waleed Abdalati, a former NASA chief scientist, who was not part of the NOAA report.
"New Arctic. We've gone white to blue," said Abdalati, adding that he would not usually use the word "scary" but it's relevant.
And that does mean other problems.
"The continuing warming of the Arctic and sea atmosphere drives a wide change in the expected environmental system, and, also, unexpected roads," said NOAA's report.
One of the most obvious problems was low winter winter ice in the Bering Sea in 2017 and 2018, scientists said.
In February, the Bering Sea "has lost an area of ice to the Idaho area," said Dartmouth's engineering teacher, Donald Perovich, a co-author of a report card.
This is a problem because of the oldest sea ice and I drove down 95 percent of 30 years ago. In 1985, about a sixth of the Arctic seawheel was a thick multi-year ice, now it's probably one hundred, says Perovich.
Gay Sheffield, the Alaska Fairbanks Biological University, is not studying the ice record, but lives daily in Nome, far north in the Bering Sea.
"We left Nome when we got open water in December," said Sheffield at the Washington Geophysical Union conference in Washington. "It's great for us."
"Getting this area free has this huge environmental change," said Sheffield, adding that ocean life is a "multi-species death". He said that that included the first spring mass dies off seals along the Bering River.
Ornithologist George Divoky, who has been studying Cooper Island's black beds for 45 years, said something different this year. In the past, 225 breeding pairs of seabirds would reach its island. During this winter there were up to 85 pairs but only 50 eggs had been installed and only 25 had successful lids. He blamed the lack of winter sea ice.
"It looked like a spirit town," said Divoky.
Generally melting, especially in summer, caribou herds and wild buds have dropped by around 55 per cent – from 4.7 million to 2.1 million animals – due to the warmth of the insect and the insect and parasites, Their stolen, said Howard Epstein's report card co-author from the University of Virginia.
Researcher at the Fairbanks University, Vladimir Romanovsky, said he was scared by what happened to the permafrost – land that is freezing from years at the end. In the last year, Romanovsky discovered 25 frozen places in January, then in February, but they did not freeze this year.
Because of warming, the Arctic is "seeing concentrations of algal toxins moving to the north" infecting birds, mammals and shellfish to become the public health and economic problem, says the co- author of Karen Frey's report card.
And the warmth ice and warmer melting sea have been linked to shifts in the jet stream that has brought extreme winter storms in the East over the last year, says Osborne.
But it's not just the Arctic. NASA's newest space radar, Icesat 2, in its first few months has already found that Dotson's ice shelf in Antarctica has lost more than 390 feet (120 meters) in thickness since 2003, said radar scientist Ben Smith of the University of Washington.
Another study released on Monday by NASA found unusual drowning in parts of East Antarctica, which scientists believed in general to be stable.
Four glaciers in Vincennes Bay lost nine feet of ice cream since 2008, NASA scientists Catherine Walker and Alex Gardner said.
The loss of ice leaflets in Antarctica could lead to massive sea level rise.
"We're starting to see a change that is related to the sea," said Gardner. "Believe it or not, this is the first time we see it in this place."