Saturday , January 23 2021

New Dates Reveal Which Ancient Homomes they were Living In The Denisova Cave, And When




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The caves of Denisova are a cave system in the Altai, Siberia, Russia. The cave is a great paloarchaeological and palaeological interest. credit image: GettyGetty

Cave of Denisova, located in the Altai Mountains, is an extremely important place in the history of human evolution. For over 300,000 years, this cave was home to different groups of archaeological homininians. These hominins included our close relatives, the Denisovans and Neanderthals, whose genomes show history o interfere with each other (and with some modern anatomical human populations). In 2018, DNA was recovered of the remnants of a Neanderthalian mother's child and a father of Denisovan (who had himself a Neanderthaic legacy), suggesting that this interaction could be common.

But for all we know about Denisovans and Neanderthal at genetic level, there are still many unanswered questions about their history. One of the most basic things is: what exactly happened at Denisova Cave, and when? We know astonishingly about who lived in the cave over different periods throughout his history, including when the different human groups lived there (and if they were overlapping).

Answering these very basic questions has been a surprise difficult. Many of the skeletal residues found in the cave are more than 50,000 years, the maximum carbon-14 dating date. Furthermore, it is clear that the layers in the cave are quite mixed due to dredging animals and geological processes, making the stratigraphy very complex to solve. However, two articles last week were published in Nature magazine (Jacobs et al. 2019, Timing of feminine occupation of Denisova Cave in South Siberia, and Douka et al. 2019, Age estimates for hominin fossils and the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in Denisova Cave) goes far towards solving the cave occupation chronology.

Jacobs and colleagues used dating thermoluminescence, which can determine how long it has been since individual quartz crystals and nbsp; exposed to light, to help understand the complex stratigraphy of Pleistocene deposits in the cave. By matching strata dated with fossil residues and DNA present in the soil, they were able to decide that Denisovans lived in the cave at least 200,000 years ago and it's probably up to about 55,000 years ago. Neanderthalian lived in the cave between about 190,000-100,000 years ago. Denisovan and a Neanderthal DNA that were restored from the soil in layers of the cave dating the same period confirming that the two groups survive the cave occupations.

The other team of researchers, Douka and colleagues, radiocarbon dating junior layers (end of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic) of the cave, as well as some bone pieces, and used the Bayesian modeling model to combine Data from many types of date (including radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, and genetic) to identify the best estimates of occupancy history in the cave. Their best supported model, which takes into account dates collected by Jacobs et al., shows that Neanderthal and Denisovans live in the same region for an extended period. At some point, Neanderthals were giving the best to live in the region, but Denisovans ended until at least 76,200-51,600 (the age of Denisovan's last known fossil). Interestingly, Douka & nbsp; and colleagues point out that the latest decoration event between Denisovans and modern people will date later (somewhere between 54,000-31,000 years ago), suggesting that the different Denisovan population could take part in that event.

Readers who are paying careful attention may notice that I have not told anything about modern anatomical people in this cave. That is why no modern human remains have been found in the Altai region dating only to the Upper Paleolithic artefacts, such as hangers and bone equipment, namely Douka et al. has dated to between 49,000-34,000 years ago. In other sites, these Upper Paleolithic artifacts have been detected in connection with early modern men, and Denisovan artefacts are overlapped with those for the Ust & # 39; -Ishim dyn (47,000-43,000 years ago), an early modern human from western Siberia, whose genome shows clear traces of Neanderthalitis. But so far there is not enough evidence to seriously settle the question about whether modern men or Denisovans did these specific things. It is possible to understand how such a culture would be split or not between different human groups through the collaborative efforts of the two archaeologists and genetics in the future.

References:

Douka et al. (2019). Age estimates for hominin fossils and the Upper Paleolithic start in Denisova Cave. Nature 565: & nbsp; 640-644.

Jacobs, Z. et al. (2019). Timing of feminine occupation of Denisova Cave in South Siberia. Natur 565, 594-599 (2019).

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The caves of Denisova are a cave system in the Altai, Siberia, Russia. The cave is a great paloarchaeological and palaeological interest. credit image: GettyGetty

Cave of Denisova, located in the Altai Mountains, is an extremely important place in the history of human evolution. For over 300,000 years, this cave was home to different groups of archaeological homininians. These meninins included our close relatives, the Denisovans and Neanderthals, whose genomes show a history of interaction with each other (and with some modern anatomical human populations). In 2018, DNA was recovered from the remains of a Neanderthalian mother's child and Denisovan's father (who had himself a Neanderthaian legacy), suggesting that these interactions could be common.

But for all we know about Denisovans and Neanderthal at genetic level, there are still many unanswered questions about their history. One of the most basic things is: what exactly happened at Denisova Cave, and when? We know astonishingly about who lived in the cave over different periods throughout his history, including when the different human groups lived there (and if they were overlapping).

Answering these very basic questions has been a surprise difficult. Many of the skeletal residues found in the cave are more than 50,000 years, the maximum carbon-14 dating date. Furthermore, it is clear that the layers in the cave are quite mixed due to dredging animals and geological processes, making the stratigraphy very complex to solve. However, two articles last week were published in Nature magazine (Jacobs et al. 2019, Timing of feminine occupation of Denisova Cave in South Siberia, and Douka et al. 2019, Age estimates for hominin fossils and the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in Denisova Cave) goes far towards solving the cave occupation chronology.

Jacobs and colleagues used to date thermoluminescence, which can determine how long it was because individual quartz crystals were exposed to light, to help understand the complex stratigraphy of Pleistocene deposits in the cave. By matching strata dated with fossil residues and DNA present in the soil, they were able to decide that Denisovans lived in the cave at least 200,000 years ago and it's probably up to about 55,000 years ago. Neanderthalian lived in the cave between about 190,000-100,000 years ago. Denisovan and a Neanderthal DNA that were restored from the soil in layers of the cave dating the same period confirming that the two groups survive the cave occupations.

The other team of researchers, Douka and colleagues, radiocarbon dating junior layers (end of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic) of the cave, as well as some bone pieces, and used the Bayesian modeling model to combine Data from many types of date (including radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, and genetic) to identify the best estimates of occupancy history in the cave. Their best supported model, which takes into account dates collected by Jacobs et al., shows that Neanderthal and Denisovans live in the same region for an extended period. At some point, Neanderthals were giving the best to live in the region, but Denisovans ended until at least 76,200-51,600 (the age of Denisovan's last known fossil). Interestingly, Douka and colleagues note that Denisovans and modern people dating up to date later (somewhere between 54,000-31,000 years ago), suggesting that the different Denisovan population could take part in that event .

Readers who are paying careful attention may notice that I have not told anything about modern anatomical people in this cave. That is why no modern human remains have been found in the Altai region dating only to the Upper Paleolithic artefacts, such as hangers and bone equipment, namely Douka et al. has dated to between 49,000-34,000 years ago. In other sites, these Upper Paleolithic artifacts have actually been found in connection with early modern men, and Denisovan artefacts overlap those for the Ust man & # 39; -Ishim (47,000-43,000 years ago), an early modern human of western Siberia, whose genome shows clear remains from Neanderthal. But so far there is not enough evidence to seriously settle the question about whether modern men or Denisovans did these specific things. It is possible to understand how such a culture would be split or not between different human groups through the collaborative efforts of the two archaeologists and genetics in the future.

References:

Douka et al. (2019). Age estimates for hominin fossils and the Upper Paleolithic start in Denisova Cave. Natur 565: 640-644.

Jacobs, Z. et al. (2019). Timing of feminine occupation of Denisova Cave in South Siberia. Natur 565, 594-599 (2019).


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