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The Polish astronomer and mathematician Nicolaus Copernicus made a fundamental change in our understanding of science. He was born on February 19, 1473, who populated the heliocentric theory that all the planets turned around the Sun, using the Copernican Revolution. But he was also a lifelong bachelor and a member of clergy who worked in medicine and economics. Come in to these 15 facts about a dad of modern astronomy.

1. He came from a family of traders and clergy.

Some historians believe that Copernicus's name comes from Koperniki, a village in Poland named after traders who excavated and sold copper. The serpent's father, also known as Nicolaus Copernicus, was a successful copper trader in Krakow. His mother, Barbara Watzenrode, came from a powerful family of traders, and his brother, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, was an influential Bishop. Two Copernicus' s oldest brothers and sisters joined the Catholic Church, one as a cannon and one as now.

2. It was a polyglot.

Growing up, Copernicus was likely to recognize Polish and German. When Copernicus's father died when he was about 10, Lucas Watzenrode funded his nephew education and began to learn Latin. In 1491, Copernicus began studying astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and logic at the University of Krakow. Five years later, he headed to the Bologna University of modern Italy to study law, where it is likely to raise something Italian. During his studies he also read Greek, which means that modern historians think he knows or understands five languages.

3. He was not the first person to suggest heliocentrism …

Copernicus is credited with the introduction of heliocentrism – the idea that the Earth is overshadowing the sun, rather than the sun that covers the Earth. But many ancient Greek and Islamic scholars from different cultures discussed similar ideas centuries earlier. For example, Aristarchus from Samos, a Greek serpent who lived in the 200 BC BCE, was a theory that the Earth and other planets turned around the Sun.

4. … but did not give full scholars to full credit.

To be clear, Copernicus knew about the work of earlier mathematicians. In a draft of the 1543 manuscript, he even included pieces that recognize the Aristarchus heliocentric ideas and other ancient Greek astronomers who had written previous versions of the theory. Before issuing the manuscript to publish, however, Copernicus moved this section; Theories for the movement range of wanting to present the ideas as a whole to change a Latin quote for a "more erudite" folk extract and delete Aristarchus with each other. These additional pages were not found for another 300 years.

5. Contributions have been made to economics.

He is known about mathematics and science, but Copernicus was also quite the economist. In 1517 he wrote a research paper outlining proposals for how the Polish king could simplify the multiple multiple currency of the country, especially in relation to the loss of some of that money. He influenced his ideas on supply and demand, inflation, and setting the government's later economic principles such as Law Gresham (observing that "poor money is driving well" if they exchange for the same price; , if a country has a $ 1 bill and a coin of $ 1, the value of the metal in the coin is higher than the value of the cotton and cloth in the bill, and so the bill will be spent more money because of that) and the Various Money Theory (the idea that the amount of money in circulation is commensurate with the amount of goods that cost).

6. He was a doctor (but did not have a medical degree).

After studying the law, Copernicus traveled to Padua University so he could become a medical advisor to his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode. Despite spending two years studying medical texts and learning anatomy, Copernicus left the medical school without a doctorate degree. However, he traveled with an uncle and treated him, as well as other members of the clergy who needed medical attention.

7. It's probably a lifetime baccalaureate …

As an official in the Catholic Church, Copernicus took vow from celibacy. She had never been married and she was most likely to be a daughter (more about that below), but children were not completely absent from her life: After he died his older sister, he became The financial guardian of her five children, her grandparents and her grandchildren.

8. … But maybe he had a relationship with a housekeeper.

Copernicus took a vow of celibacy, but did he keep it? In the late 1530s, the serpent was in his sixties when Anna Schilling, a woman in her late fifteen, began to live with him. Perhaps Schilio has been associated with Copernicus – some historians think he was a great uncle for her – and she worked as her housekeeper for two years. For unknown reasons, the bishop worked twice under Copernicus's copius for having Schilling live with him, even telling the astronomer his fire and writing to other church officials about the matter.

9. He attended four universities before graduating.

Copernicus spent over a decade studying at universities throughout Poland and Italy, but he usually left before he graduated. Why skip the diplomas? Some historians argue that students were not unusual to leave university without gaining a degree at the time. Additionally, Copernicus did not need to degree to practice medicine or law, to work as a member of the Catholic Church, or even to take up graduate or higher level.

But right before returning to Poland, he received a doctorate in the law of a dog from the University of Ferrara. According to Copernicus scholar, Edward Rosen, this was not just for scholarly purposes, but to "show that he had not cut off his time on wine, women and song, he had to bring him a diploma at home. 39; It was much smaller in Ferrara than in the other Italian universities where he studied. "

10. He was careful about publishing his opinion.

During Copernicus's age, almost everyone believed in geocentrism – the view that the Earth lies in the middle of the universe. Nevertheless, Copernicus wrote in the 1510s Commentariolus, or "the Little Commentary," a short text that discussed heliocentrism and distributed among her friends. Soon find circulation further afield, and it is said that Pope Clement VII had heard a conversation about the new theory and responding favorably. Later, Cardinal Nicholas Schönberg wrote a letter of encouragement to Copernicus, but Copernicus was still pleased to announce the full version. Some historians propose that Copernicus worries about the disturbance of the scientific community because they were unable to work out all the problems created by heliocentrism. Others suggest that the Catholic Church increases consistency on dispute, and that Copernicus fears victimization with the rise of the Reformation. In either way or another, his complete work was not public until 1543.

11. He published his work on his bed of death.

Copernicus finishes writing his book explaining heliocentrism, Orbium Coelestium De Revolutionibus (On The Celestial Orbs Regulations), in the 1530s. When he was on his bed died in 1543, he decided to publish his controversial work. According to a truck, the serpent imagined that he would read pages of his book just before printing.

12. Galileo was punished for agreeing with Copernicus.

Copernicus devoted his book to the Pope, but the Catholic Church declined decades after it had been published, and placed on the Index of Prohibition Books – was revised in 1616. A few years later, the Church ended & # 39; r prohibition after editing text to Give Copernicus view completely theoretical. In 1633, 90 years after Copernicus's death, the Church was convicted by Galileo Galilei's starriors of "strong suspect of heresy" for stimulating the Copriwmicus theory of heliocentrism. After a day in prison, Galileo spent the rest of his life under a house arrest.

13. A chemical element named after it.

Look at the periodic table of elements, and you may notice one with the Cn symbol. This is called Copernicium, this element was named at atomic number 112 to honor the serpent in 2010. The element is very radioactive, with the most stable isotope having half a life of about 30 seconds .

14. Finally, archaeologists discovered its traces in 2008.

Although he died Copernicus in 1543 and was buried somewhere under the chapel where he worked, archeologists were not sure of the exact location of his grave. They performed excavation at and from the Frombork Mansion, hitting the pay dump in 2005 and found part of a skull and skeleton beneath the marble floor of the church, near an altar. It took three years to complete the rebuilding of forensic faces and comparing DNA from the serpentist skeleton with hair from one of its books, but archaeologists were able to confirm that they had found an excerpt. Members of Copernicus Polish clergy bury for a moment at Orbork in 2010.


An obvious sculpture from the astronomer, known solely in Monument Nicolaus Copernicus, stands near the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, Poland. Copies of this monument are also outside of the Adler Planetarium of Chicago and Montreal's Planétarium Rio Tinto Alcan. Besides monuments, Copernicus also has a museum and research laboratory – Warsaw's Copernicus Science Center dedicated to it.

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