Firstly, the Hubble Space Telescope has depicted images that record a huge storm birth on Neptune, a discovery that could reveal insights into the inner workings of the giant ice planets, which people did not understand.
Like Jupiter's Great Red Spot, Neptune's Great Dark Spaces are storms that form high atmospheric pressure areas. In contrast, storms on the Earth form around areas of low pressure.
Scientists have seen a total of six dark places on Neptune over the years. Voyager 2 identified two storms in 1989. Since Hubble launched in 1990, he has seen another four of these storms, NASA said in a statement.
The researchers analyzed Hubble's pictures of the ice giant taken over the last few years and recorded the growth of the new Great Dark Spot which became visible in 2018.
By studying companion clouds that showed two years before the new Dark Great Spot, the researchers come to the conclusion that dark spots originate much deeper in Neptune's atmosphere than was thought of before.
Hubble's images also helped the researchers identify how often Neptune gets dark places and how long they last.
The findings not only give scientists an insight into the inner workings of the giant ice planets but they also have implications for the study of outputs of a similar size and composition.
"If you study the outputs and you want to understand how they are working, you need to understand our planets first," says Amy Simon, a planetary scientist at the Center. Goddard Space Flight NASA in the United States.
"We have so much information about Uranus and Neptune," said Simon, the lead author of the study published in Geophysical Research Letters.
Scientists first saw Great Wild Day in Neptune in 1989, when a NASA Voyager 2 probe flew past the mysterious blue planet. As the spacecraft magnified, he drew pictures of two large storms brewing in the Neptune hemisphere.
Scientists called the storms in "The Great Dark View" and "Dark Scenes 2."
Five years later, Hubble Space Telescope took sharp images of Neptune which revealed that the Great Dark Spot of the Earth's size and the smaller Dark Spectrum 2 had disappeared.
Big Big Smot appeared on Neptune in 2018, almost identical in size and shape with the one Voyager seen in 1989.
Researchers analyzed Hubble's images of a smaller dark spot that appeared in 2015 when small bright white clouds were discovered in the region where 2018 Great Dark Spot would appear later.
"We were so busy tracing this smaller storm from 2015, that we didn't necessarily expect another one so soon," said Simon.
The high altitude clouds include methane ice crystals, giving them their distinctive bright white color.
Scientists suspect that these methane clouds coincide with the storms that form dark spots, hovering above the way lenticular clouds cap tall mountains on Earth.