Tuesday , January 26 2021

Charge of Battery-Electric Vehicles: History and Futures



Let's look at the current situation that's rising rapidly in the United States.

Fossil fuel electricity vehicles need to be replaced as soon as possible because worldwide warm up due to carbon emissions from fossil fuels combustion and decision fossil fuels. In this document, only full electric light (BEV) vehicles, cars and picks, which are considered. For BEVs to be replaced by fossil fuel light vehicles, there must be a huge network (DC 50-kW to 350 kW) power across the country to allow BEV driving long distance. I will only consider the US in this document.

Charging power (kilowatt or kW) specifies how fast a battery is charged (kWh battery power = kW x hour charging).

It is important that BEV drivers know that rapidly rising kW power is not consistent after BEV is plugged. For example, here charging cube for the Tesla-Model-3-Long-Range BEV (TM3LR) charging a Tesla Supercharger from close to full (100% SOC), unlikely and undesirable event:

Please note that it takes around the same time to charge an empty vacancy to 75% SOC to charge 75% to 100%! Therefore, trips are faster when charging more often than charging to 100%. (TESla BEV is considering this when their screen shows how long they will charge a specific Supercharger).

If such battery is accused of more than almost empty, the power top will be less than the maximum; e.g., for a TM3LR charge in Supercharger the top when a charging of 20% is full of about 90-kW instead of 120kW. Also, it is important to know that less lithium-ion battery capacity is degraded over time if those batteries are not routinely accused to be fully able or released to be wag.

there are three other protocols that are a fast charge in the United States.: Tesla, CCS for BEVs U.S. and European and CHAdeMO for Asian BEVs. The last two are standards for charging non-Tesla stations in the USA, with CCS as the favorite.

It should be emphasized that BEVs home charging at 240-volt AC is a very important prerequisite for the replacement of fossil fuel cars by BEVs. However, most apartment residents will need a network that fits rapidly with stations everywhere, including in cities as Tesla operates, for a charge on their BEVs.

Currently, the US fast-loading network is inadequate for some long distance routes but it's fast, especially for the Tesla-Supercharger Network. There are several different networks that charge fast in the US.

Here is a current map planned and planned

As shown below, the charging Tesla network is far in front of other fast-running networks in the USA. Tesla has plans to increase power Superchargers in 200-250-kW. A long stretch of travel is Tesla BEV's long distance travel Tesla Destination Chargers (Theup to 19-kW power) is freely given by Tesla to hotels, restaurants, businesses, parks, multi-family residences and workplaces. There are around 3,000 Tesla Destination Chargers in the U.S. Here's a map of your settings:

Tesla BEVs makes it easy for Tesla drivers to find nearby Superchargers, even showing how many stalls are available, and Destination Chargers on the car screen.

  • Electrify America, a subsidiary of Volkswagen, is planning 484 locations in the United States for fast-running DC stations within the next ten years:

In October 2018 there were 30 American-fast-rising electricity-based locations:

For example, the Electrify-America fast156 departure charging station on I-81 in Virginia It has 4 CCS stations and 1 CHAdeMO stations with a maximum power of 150 kW. This is typical of American Electrify electric power stations as the number of CCS stations is around four times the number of CHAdeMO stations. Electrify America has a long way to go anywhere in the capacity of the Tesla network.

The numbers add to 167 locations for fast-charging stations. The number of stalls in each location can vary and many stalls are lower than 50-kW power.

  • Greenlots It may be the next fastest lifting network in the United States Here is a map of the 50-kW or higher Greenlots station locations:

The green rings identify stations that were available when the map was built. The number of stalls in each location can vary.

  • I'm sure is another fast-charging network. Here is a map of the fast-loading station locations EVgo:

Numbers add to 741 locations for fast-charging stations. The number of stalls in each location can vary and many stalls are lower than 50-kW power.

Fast Charging Networks

It is clear that legacy companies and the start of BEV make an agreement with Tesla to allow BEVs to charge in Tesla Superchargers and Destination Chargers in return for helping to pay for infrastructure, maintenance and construction of more & # 39; r Tesla Superchargers to Destination Chargers. Then the smaller charging networks will need to co-ordinate with Tesla to reduce redundancy and create even more density of fast pay stations throughout the country.

Tesla has exchanged the standard Tesla port for the CCS port for Model 3s sold in Europe:

Tesla has started adding CCS cables for Superchargers in Europe along with the standard Tesla cable:

Enter the Tesla cable at the top and the CCS cable at the bottom. Tesla has joined SAS CCS Association, stating that they will use the CCS charging for future TESla BEV.

The next logical move for Tesla is to provide a CCS-Tesla adapter so that current Tesla BVs can use all the fast-running networks in the United States If an agreement with legacy and BEV campaigns can be hit Others to use Superchargers, then Tesla can provide Superchargers in the United States with an additional CCS cable as it is happening in Europe. Tesla sells a CHAdeMO adapter-Tesla expensive for Model S and Model X BEVs, but not currently for the Model 3. The Tesla-CCS adapter may be available to non-Tesla BEVs so that they could use thousands of Tesla Destination Users . (TheOne already exists.)

References

L. David Roper, [email protected], http://www.roperld.com/personal/roperldavid.htm


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