Sunday , January 24 2021

BBC – Future – How easy will it be to build a Moon base?



In 1975, three years after the final landing of Apollo Moon, Space: 1999 first broadcast on British television. It started with a nuclear explosion in Lleuad, and international lunch towns of over 300 people, out of orbit and an unknown trip to space.

Elon Musk was clearly impressed by the television series because, when the founder of SpaceX revealed their plans for a lunar colonine in August 2017, it's called Alpha Moonbase after the gray foundation in Space: 1999. "Cheese Show," Musk was tossed, "But I love it."

SpaceX alone is not eager to get people back on the Moon. The Chinese Space Agency CNSA (China National Space Administration) has announced the next steps of its successful Changing lunch exams – soon after Chang 4 became the first spacecraft to make a shift soft on the far side of the Moon.

Changes 5 and 6 will be examples of return journeys while Chang 7 is inspecting the De Pole, a region of specific interest for human residence as it includes water frost. "We hope Chang 8 will help to test some technologies and do some audit," said deputy head of the CNSA, Wu Yanhua in January, "for the construction of a shared dinner base by countries multiple. "

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China is not just at this ambition. Across the world, 50 years after the Cleaning of the Moon, the moon path functionality takes shape. Irony is that, while only the United States of America has left a footprint on the Moon, Americans now have to play up. He did not reveal plans for a prosperous permanent route until August 2018. Nasa's main focus had even been Mars. The European Space Agency (Esa) was already one step forward.

Village of Moon

Esa announced plans for a permanent fund base in 2016. Having been pioneered by its general director, Jan Woerner, his vision for Moon & # 39; including a diverse population of people – from scientists to artists – and public and private organizations. This could be for astronomical research, tourism or geological exploitation of minerals on a short supply on Earth.

He was definitely in front of the curve. Ariel Ekblaw, founder of the MIT Media Lab Space Inquiry, also wants to "democratize space" and, to this end, has brought together multi-disciplinary research groups ranging from robotic and synthetic neurobiology to architecture, art, space and design.

Not everyone used to think so, but Esa, science advisor, Aidan Cowley, welcomed the Woerner idea as he was one of the first to work on lunchtime at the European Astronaut Center in Cologne, Germany. "At first, everyone looked at me as if I had a second stop," I'm laughing, "so I've been very pleased to see this too much interest and focus on the Moon. Jan read the tea leaves. "

Unlike Nasa, who has a ban for working with China on placements, Esa also works with CNAS. "Last year, we found that astronauts That Matthais Mauer and Samantha Cristoforretti were taking part with Chinese colleagues on marine rescue and survival," said Cowley.

Nasa aims to replace the stronghold on the roof surface by 2030 and is planning a lunch-burning lunch from the name Gateway. Private companies are also going to Lleuad. Blue Origin, for example, works with OHB and MT Aerospace on its Blue Moon cargo ship for lunch. But whichever organization first arrives there, the key priority will be to survive. The longest time people have lived on the Moon so far are only three days. For longer periods, this is not the most welcoming of destinations.

Destination Moon

The Moon has a temperature ranging from -127 to -173 C (-196 to -343F). Then there is radiation and low severity, one part of six Earth. A lunch day is also around 29 days of Earth, which means two weeks of light per day and then two weeks of darkness – a problem for solar power. Therefore, any new technologies for advance sight must work under these conditions.

The competition will last for five years because the ambition of The Moon Race is to bring the best team idea up to the face of the Moon – Pierre-Alexis Joumel

With this endeavor in mind, many organizations – including Blue Origin, Airbus Defense and Space and Esa – have recently helped establish a not-for-profit organization called The Moon Race. This global competition is to encourage companies to develop technologies in manufacturing, energy generation, resources (filling in a bottle with lunch) and biology (to maintain the first sheltered greenhouse) and will be officially launched in October 2019 at the Australian International Congress.

"We will issue guidelines and rules within the next month," said Airbus space engineer in Germany and co-founder of Race Race Race, Pierre-Alexis Joumel. "The competition will last for five years because the ambition of The Moon Race brings the idea of ​​the best team up to the face of the Moon."

The technology prototypes chosen for testing under brown conditions will go on a lunchtime trip. "The trips we are targeting are mostly from space agencies. One has planned for 2024-25."

Building a home

Despite art imaginative concept of early moon fractures, reality is more fundamental. And gray. Traveling to the Moon is expensive. The more expensive the load load, the more fuel needed and the higher the cost and the cost. Building a living space out of available resources makes sense. The potential of the use of lava tubes, tunnels formed during the volcanic past of the Moon, such as shelters with access to ice ice has been frozen under the surface. But a more direct plan is to build a habitat using a regolith of mold, the dark dark-colored gray sand that is similar to volcanic sand on Earth.

Professor Matthias Sperl of the University of Cologne works with the German Space Agency, DLR, using volcanic powder to make bricks. The regolith simulator is run with each other using a process called sintering, where sunlight or lanterns are tied together with the other. He used 3D printers to build different shape bricks to see who worked best. "What we can build with current techniques and shapes is in line with building elements," said Sperl. "We do not build Lego but we have bricks that are co-locked."

These bricks "would build something like igloo, then it's strongly against additional pressures of the above." The pressure of a meter tier, therefore, of free regulator, would offer natural protection against radiation as there is no wind on the Moon to blow it away.

"You need to bring a square meter or more of a large lens to hold the solar light to allow 3D sintering and gray dust printing," said Sperl. "Then you need a vessel or a robot will probably bring those pieces together to bring together a settlement."

Oxygen may also be removed within the gray regolith itself for breathing

But building one structure would be a slow process. "It takes about five hours to make bricks," says Sperl, "and you need 10,000 bricks for igloo. It will take months."

This time could be reduced if more lenses are in place and performances are performed in a robotic, but it's a practical plan. "Lunar Revolution can build something as strong as concrete," said Sperl. "The current technologies give only one-fifth of that strength around the gypsum, so further investment is needed to reach the greatest strengths."

The next step is sizing up. Fortunately, construction will begin later this year on a large shipping opportunity that can help prepare for both technologies and live on the Moon.

Survive

Given that there was evidence of water ice found in the Poles of the Moon, and finally confirmed by Nasa in August last year, there are likely to be any moonfish in these locations. There is no coincidence that Changes 4 and Yutu 2 rover are collecting information in the Aitken Basin of the Pole De. The water can be found on the surface water in permanent dredging and dredging areas.

Oxygen may also be removed within the gray regolith itself for breathing. The most likely source is ilmenite (FeTiO3) which, when combined with hydrogen at a temperature of about 1,000C (1,832F), produces water vapor, which then needs to be separated to produce hydrogen and oxygen.

Initially, astronaut will need to bring food and drink supplies. Chang 4 caused excitement by germination and seed quote, but the production of sustainable food in space is not a new idea. He started in 1982 when Soviet cosmic rises Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the mustard family, on the Salyut space station 7. In 2010, the University of Arizona developed a gray glass house & prototype; – a hydroponic system using a 5.5 meter tube under the membrane, water-cooled sodium vapor lamps and "envelopes" to hold the seeds using the carbon dioxide of the respirator's urine breath and urine to provide water. Fiber-optic cables provided sunlight.

Energy

New energy technologies will be key to living on the Moon. Fuels on Earth require a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen (often from air) to generate electricity, with water as a by-product. Although there is no atmosphere on the Moon, the ingredients are there.

"You could share the water we have on the Moon and at night it's repurchase it to generate electricity," said Cowley, who is developing these new technologies. "During the day we have a lot of solar power, it's likely to be excessive to share water in hydrogen and oxygen, so it's a unique tool that we could use on the Moon to hold a long mission. "

There is also the potential to store thermal energy using a process similar to heat pumps. "On the Moon we have no convention because there is no wind so the heat of the Sun remains in the regolith," said Cowley. "We could use a lens or mirror to concentrate on the ground and use that resource to keep the base warm or to generate electricity."

Once these technologies are being processed and tested to ensure they work under lunch conditions, astronauts will be able to build a moon path. It will be faster than you're thinking.

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