Friday , August 19 2022

A new huge Mars scene shows where the same ancient water day has carved its face


ESA / DLR / Berlin Free University

Mars channels on dry rivers were found more than 1.6 kilometers wide and 198 meters in depth, showing how Planet Red already had liquid water on its face.

Mars is known today as a boring wilderness, but about 3.4 billion years ago, the Red Planet was flooded with blue, introducing a large ocean in its northern hemisphere, lakes and many rivers. During its ancient past, Mars had a thick, warm atmosphere, allowing the planet to make a liquid water on the surface. Observations of orbiting satellites around Mars and face rovers have provided the evidence for this, whether in the form of dry river beds or clay-like deposits which require the presence of water to form.

Artist version for Mars when there was water on the surface. Image: ESO / M. Kornmesser / N. Risinger

However, over time, the thick Martian atmosphere has evaporated and, together with it, the surface water of the planet. Today, visible evidence of this water can be seen as frozen ice in the poles.

New images released on Thursday by the European Space Agency (ESA) give further evidence of Mars's aquatic past. The region shown in the pictures is a system of valleys located in the southern mountainous regions, to the east of a large impact grater of the name Huygens. Pictures obtained by the Mars Express ESA satellite at the end of last year show an ancient region with many lakes that, despite erosion, still show signs of running water.

This Mars Valley dry image was taken on November 19, 2018. The ground solution is approximately 14 meters per pixel. The north is shown to the right. Image: ESA / DLR / Berlin Free University

Topographic view of the district color coding. Areas of lower height are shown in blue and purple, while higher regions are shown in white, yellow and red. Image: ESA / DLR / Berlin Free University

One day, the water flowed down north of the north (from left to left), creating rivers up to two kilometers wide and 200 meters deep , according to ESA. Today, the valley is smooth and palate, but its former bed and river status is clearly visible. ESA explains in more detail:

In general, the valley system appears to be a real branch, forming a slightly pattern like tree branches of a central trunk road. This type of morphology is known as diagritic & # 39; – the term is derived from the Greek word for a tree (dendron), and it's easy to see why. There are several canals apart from the central valley, forming small tributaries that often separate their journey out.

This type of dendritic structure is also found in drainage systems on Earth. An extremely good example is the Afang Tsangpo Yarlung that runs through China, India and Bangladesh from its source in Tibet. In the case of this image of Mars, these branching channels are likely to be formed by the surface water flow from the strongest river stream of the river, along with extensive rainfall. It is believed that this stream has broken the land on Mars, creating new paths and new landscape carving.

The presence of ancient waters running on Mars raises many questions. What was the source of this water? Was it caused by melting glaciers or did the water leak beneath the surface? Or was the rain that produced this running water? And how long did it take until the water dried? It is also important to question: which contributed to the conditions in which they could live on Mars, who made the planet alive?

These questions remain unanswered and call for further studies on Mars. Fortunately, the NASA Landfill and Lander InSight Ship continues to collect valuable data, such as Mars Recognition Orbiter, also from the US agency, and ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and Mars Express ESA. And we also have the ExoMars mission that is coming to look forward to, which will include the newly appointed Roserind Franklin rover.


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