"When InSight goes into the Mediterranean soil, we will learn more about how Mars and Earth were formed. We will know more about where we all came and why these two rocky worlds are so similar, but so differently, "Bill Nye, CEO of the Non-profit Planning Association, in a statement. "We might learn more about which types of blankets can be life-minded. InSight is more than Mars's mission – it's a solar system mission."
Ambassadors like the rocks have given a superb look at the surface, including canyons Mars, volcanoes, soils and rocks, but here are the underground building blocks that record the history of the planet. InSight will spend two years exploring the inside.
As on Earth, stories are locked in the core, the mantle and the Martian crest. But Mars's history may be more complete than Earth because the Red Planet has been less geologically active.
Mars was chosen for the mission due to this complete record, which is similar to forming Earth, Venus, Mercury and Moon. InSight can also investigate the tectonic activity of the planet and the effects of a meteorite.
And this is not just about Mars. InSight will give us a deeper understanding of how the rocket planets formed in our solar system more than 4 billion years ago, such as Earth.
It's similar in a design for Mars Phoenix Mission, who studied ice near the north martian pole in 2008.
MarCO is on the way
InSight is not just on this mission. There are two ski space space spaces, named MarCO, in cube satellites following InSight on their trip. Here are the first cube satellites to fly into a deep space. MarCO will try to share data on InSight when entering the Martian environment for landing.
During the InSight entry, collapse and landing, the landmer will transfer information to the Mars Orbiter Marsh that now revolves Mars. But the orbiter can not accept and transfer data at the same time, which would delay the news of the landing about an hour.
However, MarCO can receive and transfer immediately.
"MarCO-A and B are our first and second interdisciplinary CubeSats designed to monitor InSight for a short time around landing, if the MarCO couple does to Mars," said Jim Green, director of NASA's Plastic Sciences Division. "However, these CubeSat cubes do not need this for the success of the InSight mission. They are a possible demonstration of potential future capability. The MarCO pair will conduct their own communication and navigation experiments as they fly independently to the Red Planet. "
The landing: What I know
Landing on Mars is incredibly difficult. Only 40% of the flights sent to the Red Planet from any agency have been successful.
Part of this is due to the Martian tenaneous atmosphere, which is only 1% of Earth, so there is nothing to slow down something that is trying to land on the surface.
The United States is the only country that has surviving trips landing on Mars, and NASA has been flying past, flooding, landing and fading over Mars since 1965.
As a Phoenix space craft, InSight will have a parachute and retro rockets to slow down its atmosphere through the atmosphere, and three legs will be prevented from the tester trying to absorb the shock of face-to-face .
But the engineers were preparing the spacecraft to land during a dust storm if needed.
Tweaks for the original Phoenix design included the heat shield and parachute. The heat shield is thick, which can be sandwidth by a Martian dust storm, while the parachute stopping lines are stronger to cope with air resistance.
InSight will not have a blind clearance. Orbiter Identification Mars will send weather updates to the mission team in the previous days, allowing the team to change when the parachute uses.
InSight new home
InSight landed at Elysium Planitia, known as astronomers "the largest car park on the Mars". Because it does not wander over the surface, the landing site was an important decision. This fan is open, a safe and boring apartment, which is what the scientists like for a two-year mission.
"If Elysium Planitia was a salad, it would contain romaine lettuce and a smile – no dress," said Bruce Banerdt, investigator of the InSight main research, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "If it were ice cream, it would be vanilla."
After landing, InSight will unfold with solar panels and a robotic arm and study the entire planet from a parking space. Along with the equator of the Marsian, it is bright and warm enough to give power to a solar solar fund per annum.
The series of geophysical instruments on InSight is similar to a doctor's bag, giving Mars its first "check" since its formation. Together, those instruments will take measurements of the essential signs of Mars, such as its pulses, temperatures and reactions – which translates into internal activity such as seismology and the rest of the planet as the sun and & # 39; i flats go on the Mars.
These instruments include the Seismic Experimental for Internal Structures to investigate the causes of the seismic waves on Mars, the Heat Flow and Physical Landscapes Pack to undergo the surface and determine the heat that flows out of the planet, and the Rotation and Structure Test You use radios to study the core of the planet.
InSight will be able to measure syringes that occur anywhere on the planet. And it can hammer a search to the surface.
"The choice of a good landing site on Mars is very similar to choosing a good home: It's about location, location, location," said Tom Hoffman, the InSight project manager at JPL. "And for the first time, the Mars landing appraisal had to consider what is under Mars's surface. We did not just need a safe place to land, but also a job space ; n drives our heat 16 foot flow search. "