From planting forests of long continents to stimulate rainfall, researchers have begun to offer, prove, and in some cases the implementation of large-scale geoengineering projects to transform the planet significantly. These projects have been designed to solve problems such as desert, drought, or excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, each with the ultimate aim of going to address with climate change.
A recent report from the US Global Change Research Program and 13 other federal agencies indicate the impact of unverified climate change, such as the cost of hundreds of millions of dollars in the US economy per year due to increased frequency of extreme weather and reduction in a product crop, among others. This has created a new push for radical solutions, but some of these have faced significant opposition, as is geoengineering as a whole.
Opponents argue that people do not understand the complexity of global, naturally enough circles, and tinkling with them can cause more problems than it's solved.
Great Green Walls
A type of project that is already underway in more than one location is to build green walls across the large planet swaths. These are made of native vegetation and planted on the edge of the desert to prevent the desert of the surrounding area. That is, the land on the edge of the desert already tends to be drought and is co-operated by the communities that live there, creating a vicious circle and leaving residents who endeavor to survive . Green walls and supportive efforts mean the regeneration of the land, making large areas of the planet more vibrant.
The two largest walls are the three-north Sheltered Forest Program in China, which has 4,500 kilometers long and aims to prevent the spread of the Gobi Desert and the Great Green Green Wall of Africa, which is 8,000 km long to break & # 39; r Sahara.
The success of the walls depends on tracking long-term changes in vegetation patterns, and, to do this, researchers rely on decades of image value and satellite algorithms known as extended visual interpretation to analyze images. Collect Earth, a joint effort between Google and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Institute, created an open source interface that allowed researchers to access all this data.
Bloc & Haul
Last year, Harvard scientists did prove that it meant sending trace amounts of aerosol-not enough to have a significant impact-into the Earth's stratosphere, about 20km in height. The aerosols contain compounds such as sulfate, which can reflect sunlight that comes in and reduces global temperatures.
Paper published in 2017 in the magazine Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics claiming that spray into the atmosphere is basically imitate the ash crew of volcanic eruption. Also, as an ash lead, once it is sprayed to the lower stratosphere, the aerosol will spread rapidly, affecting the large areas of the planet.
Researchers also look into the launch of a large parasol into a space to control the amount of solar radiation that hit the Earth. This idea has been around for decades, but has only recently gained momentum.
For example, paper 2018 of Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management Describe the launch of what the authors call the HSS, or Shield Space Huge. The plan is to put thin, broad carbon fiber sheets into the Lagrange point, which is a relatively stable point in the complex system of removal of gravity between the Earth, the moon and the sun. The leaflet would only prevent a small amount of solar radiation, but it could be enough to drop global temperatures below the 1.5 degrees Celsius limit set by the International Panel on Climate Change.
Others want to block the sun by stimulating cloud formation, a process called clouding. For rain to fall, air intensity in the air needs to be intensified, resulting in the need to discharge temperatures and something to reconcile around – an interesting concept of the nucleus name. Naturally, water drops concentrate around dust particles, pollen, salt of salt, and even bacteria, but scientists have confirmed that compounds such as silver iodide or dry ice can also work. The plan is to spray the atmosphere above drought areas that experience drought with these substances, increasing cloud cover and rainfall.
Remove CO2 from the Atmosphere
Direct Air Transport (DAC) includes a cocktail of chemicals that bind CO2 but are inert to other gases. As the air passes through DAC machines, also known as artificial trees, the CO2 complies with the chemicals and is released again when it is energized by energy, allowing it is stored, stored and recycled or re-used. The Swiss company of the Climeworks name has built the only commercial plant designed to hold and resell CO2. They aim to capture one percent of global CO2 emissions by 2025.
CO2 of the atmosphere can be removed by sewing the oceans, which is one of the main carbon carbon sinks of the planet, which is responsible for removing about 30 percent CO2. The two highest ways of doing this are iron and lime. Iron fertilization is intended to stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which sucks CO2 of the atmosphere and helps it to deposit at sea.
In a Korean paper that was published in 2018, the authors in the last 25 years looked at iron seed experiments, with the conclusion that it could be a viable solution, although they recognized that many more tests were needed. Adding lime would cause a reaction with the CO2 that has already been dissolved in the sea and converted to bicarbonate ions, reducing the acidity of the oceans and ready to absorb more CO2.
Is Cure Worse Than Disease?
Although these ideas seem promising, there are a variety of potentially damaging effects. In 2008, 191 UN banter countries approved on the fertilization of the seizures of unknown side effects, such as changing the food chain or creating regions of low oxygen concentration. The state legislature Rhode Island transferred the Geoengineering Act 2017, which claimed that "geoengineering covers many technologies and methods that include dangerous activities that can damage the health and safety of people, the environment, and the state economy of Rhode Island. "
Despite the opposition, some companies lobby governments for not going on geoengineering schemes, and scientists continue to devise and experiment with new ideas. But some of the benefits of these schemes are being questioned. Newly published newspaper Nature claims that reducing solar radiation that hit the surface of the ground will not do much to prevent the adverse effects of climate change on crops.
The question, of course, do we know enough to engage with geoengineering? What if sewing a large-scale cloud, for example, changes the jetstream and delays the monsoon season across Southeast Asia? What would this do for rice crops? Or what if dumping tonnes of iron to the sea is destroying the fish population along the coast of Chile?
Nobody knows exactly what impact geoengineering projects might have, but it is also possible that the solutions we have been looking for.
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