Although disagreeing, the following sentence is very true: the cancer news is better everyday: new treatments, new research lines, revolutionary drugs approved by health agencies and reduced premature deaths, thanks to the accumulation of the tumor are some of the news that every week deals with medicine to improve this awful disease.
Developments that emerged during the last year are more than encouragement and allow us to glimpse the light in a very dark tunnel that is suffering from pain and pain.
For example, cancer survival rates in the United Kingdom and other European countries have doubled in the last 40 years and half of cancer patients live more than 10 years.
But according to Professor Karol Sikora, one of Britain's leading experts in the UK and dean of the University of Buckingham School of Medicine, within 10 years that figure will be closer to 70 percent, which means that many cancers become a disease he lives in it, instead of dying.
"Over the past decade, we have had a huge increase in our understanding of the molecular changes that occur in the body cells that lead to cancer, and in 10 years we will understand much more, we make very good progress, "he said.
Summary of last 5 and most promising developments:
1- Immunotherapy: when our defenses operate
Certainly, the great increase in which they give more hopes is imotherapy, instead of chemotherapy: let defenses destroy the malignant cells.
So far, the drugs were set to attack the cell with a cancer to destroy. We speak, for example, of chemotherapy or monoclonal antibodies. However, immunotherapy opens a new but only hand-in-the-path route.
The immunotherapy strategy is different: the use, operation or suspension of our immune system as a protection against tumor cells. That is, instead of assaulting the cells we use our immune system. Why? Cancer starts with cells that different mechanisms begin to share abnormally in the body.
However, if it's unusual and the organism sees it as something weird, why not destroy it? Our immune system has the so-called brakes and accelerators when they balance recognizing and destroying the foreign cells. However, when this balance is broken, we leave the tumor cells free to reproduce.
And that's where immunotherapy comes in, with these treatments we encourage or stimulate our immune system so that we can protect ourselves.
It is especially important for treating lung cancer, kidney or skin cancers, where there were no good chemotherapy treatments. The final thing is also to combine chemotherapy with immunotherapy with antiangiogenic drugs and specifically directed monoclonal antibodies.
The 2018 development, according to the Association of American Clinical Oncology (ASCO), is a new type of immunotherapy called T cell therapy with chimeric antigen receptors (chimeric antigen receptor, CAR).
There is a type of immunotherapy of the name "immunotherapy cell adoptive". As described by the president and the ASCO member, Bruce E. Johnson, this technique allows doctors to re-plan the immune cells of the patient themselves to find and assault cancer cells through body. "
In T cell with CAR therapy, person T cells are removed and removed to the lab. Genetic changes in the T cells are made to attack the cancer cells. These cells with CARs are taught in large quantities and then sprayed into the patient.
One of the notable features of this procedure is that it is "living therapy". Generally, T-tights with CAR must only be injected once they continue to multiply in the body. T cells with CAR continue to fight cancer in the patient's body, and their effectiveness can even increase over time.
2- Simpler and faster diagnostics
The cancer test that can detect cancer before it develops (up to 10 years in advance) has become one of the most exciting and promising developments.
The tests to identify if there are cancer cells through biopsies, in some cases, are likely to have difficulty accessing the organ that is affected by the patient's higher age or because of its immune system being compromised . It had already been developed by non-invasive tests, such as analysis of biological fluids (urine, saliva or feces). The liquid biopsy has now been added: the cancer detector through the blood.
Taking a sample of the patient's blood and "running" through a lab in the lab, you can check any DNA pulled by the tumors. This begins to circulate in the bloodstream long before patients feel the symptoms, giving patients early warning to the patient that the cancer will develop a type of cancer.
This DNA can tell scientists where tumors grow and how far the cancer has spread. US researchers believe that the test, known as fluid biopsy, can halve cancer mortality rates and would be particularly beneficial to the most dead forms of the disease, such as the lungs, pancreas and ovaries, which are often diagnosed and late.
A test has also recently appeared to diagnose the types of tumors of unknown origin. The test is called an epigenetic diagnosis and is performed by a genome analysis.
The test, which has received funding from Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, could be available in two years. The ultimate goal is to offer this diagnosis to patients together with regular blood pressure and cholesterol checks.
3- Detailed precision radiotherapy
Radiotherapy today is one of the three most useful methods of eliminating cancer cells. It is made using X-rays or other high-protein particles to destroy cancer cells.
Radiation oncologists use this type of treatment to destroy cancer cells and delay tumor growth without damaging healthy tissue nearby. Sometimes doctors recommend radiation therapy as the first treatment for cancer. Other times, people have radiation therapy after surgery or chemotherapy. This is known as assistive therapy. Its objective is to attack the cancer cells that wait after the initial treatment.
When the cancer can not be completely destroyed, doctors can use radiation therapy to reduce the size of the tumor and mitigate the symptoms. This is called palliative radiotherapy. Palliative radiation therapy can reduce weight, pain and other symptoms. The aim of this therapy is to improve the quality of life of someone.
More than half of people with cancer have some form of radiation therapy. For some types of cancer, radiation therapy is just an effective treatment. Other types of cancer respond better to combined treatments. These may include radiation therapy as well as surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
4. Personal treatment or target
In addition to radiotherapy, the other two basic treatments to eliminate cancer are the surgery to remove malign cells and chemotherapy, that is, treat them with medication. The problem of chemotherapy was mainly its side effects (hair loss, nausea, reduction of defenses).
However, drugs are becoming increasingly specialized. And a new line of drugs has already directed or targeted against the molecules present in some breast, stomach, melanoma, lung and lymphoma tumors.
The operation that is functioning has to target specific molecular targets that have been placed on the surface or within the tumor cells, which are necessary for growth and multiplication cancer cells, interfere with the process of cannogenogenesis and tumor growth.
The target therapies choose a cellular subsistence that carries the specific target to which they are referred, acting on the changes that promote the growth, distribution and distribution of cells cancer. The main types of target therapies are compounded by the small molecules known as molecular antibodies.
In some types of cancer, most patients with this cancer will have an appropriate treatment target for a specific drug; but, in most cases, the patient's tumor needs to be analyzed to determine if he has the specific targets for which that drug was developed.
Targeted therapy can also cause side effects that will depend on the therapy you have targeted and how your body reacts to treatment.
5- Proposals to prevent cancer metastasis
It has been proven that there are some treatments to prevent metastasis melanoma. Melanoma skin cancer tumors grow and are more likely to be metastasis due to interaction between a pair of modules, according to research in experimental models and human cells.
The results can restore the potential of a type of cancer therapy previously given in clinical trials. In addition, the findings include a molecule that has already linked to obesity and dementia as a possible cause of fetastasis or spread of cancer cells to other body areas.
Melanoma accounts for about 1 per cent of skin cancer, but it causes a vast majority of deaths from skin cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. However, there are very few treatments available to prevent melanoma metastasis.
A research team led by Beate Heissig's associate professor of the Institute of Medical Sciences at the University of Tokyo, Japan, has studied Plasminogen Tissue Activator (TPA) for more than a decade.
Heissig's research team proposed to stop the steps that promote tast metastasis by preventing it from connecting with LRP1. In this way, the scientists found that the experimental models without LRP1 had less tumors, even when the researchers provided additional tPA.
Other studies have linked LRP1 to chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. "It's surprise that LRP1 also regulates cancer growth and spread, usually a receptor for fat molecules," explains Heissig.
Ten key approvals for new drugs
-Pembrolizumab is the only immunotherapy recommended by the National Institute for Health and Social Excellence (NICE, for its acronym in English at the National Institute of Excellence for Health and Social Care) for patients with urothelial carcinoma.
-The combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab was included as the first line treatment for higher renal cell carcinoma
-The United States Imfinzi FDA approved for stage III lung cancer that is not investigated in anonymous notable action.
-The FDA larotrectinib, a unique drug directed to DNA, recommended for NTRK + cancers.
NICE was notified to Atzolizumab for patients with higher bladder cancer in the NHS.
-FDA approved the first treatment for Analestic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC): this type of thyroid cancer in almost 50 years, a combination of tobacco and thrametinib targeted therapy for patients with ATCs; u mutate with BRAF. This approach led to a reduction in the tumor in more than two thirds of the study participants.
-The Sorafenib drug was the first treatment to improve sequential survival in patients with desmoid tumors, a rare type of sarcoma.
-The FDA 177Lu-Dotatate, administrator and radiation approved to target tumor neuroendocrine midgut tumors, according to research that shows that it reduces the risk of the movement or death of the disease by 79% in patients with higher disease.
-In 2018, trastuzumab was slowly slowing the serum of gutterous serum carcinoma positively for HER2, one of the most aggressive types of endometrial cancer.
-There was one research of the first promising therapy, pexidartinib, for the tenosynovial large cell tumor: rare joint cancer, which generated positive responses in almost 40% of patients.