The history of peopling Americas has recently been interpreted. The largest and most comprehensive study ever undertaken on the basis of fossil DNA derived from ancient human remains found on the continent has confirmed the existence of single single population for all current ethnic, past and present ethnic groups.
Over 17,000 years ago, this original crossing crosses the Bering River from Siberia to Alaska and began cycling the New World. DNA Fossil shows a link between this migrant and the populations of Siberia and northern China. Contrary to the traditional theory, he had no connection with Africa or Australasia.
The new study also shows that once they had settled in North America, the descendants of the ancient migratory flows were diversified to two lines some 16,000 years ago.
One member crosses to Isthmus from Panama and South American America was seated in three different sequential waves.
The first wave occurred between 15,000 and 11,000 years ago. The second was held in most 9,000 years ago. Fossil DNA records of both organizations throughout South America. The third wave is much more recent but its influence is limited as it happens 4,200 years ago. He set his members in the Central Andes.
An article on the new study has been published in the magazine Cell A group of 72 researchers from eight countries, associated with São Paulo University (USP) in Brazil, Harvard University in the United States, and Max Planck Institute for Human History Science in Germany, among others.
According to the researchers' findings, the string that made the north-south journey between 16,000 and 15,000 years ago belonged to the culture of Clovis, named for a group of archaeological sites that were deposited in the western United States and dates from 13,500-11,000 years ago.
The Clovis culture was named so when flint chips were discovered in the 1930's when excavated at Clovis, New Mexico. Clovis sites have been identified throughout the United States and in Mexico and Central America. In North America, Clovis people sang Pleistocene megafaun as a huge apple and mamoth. With the decline of the megafauna and the disappearance of 11,000 years ago, the culture of Clovis eventually disappeared. Prior to that, however, bands of collector hunters had traveled to the south to explore new hunting grounds. They ended up settling in Mid America, as shown by a 9,400-year-old human fossil DNA discovered in Belize and analyzed in the new study.
Later on, perhaps following mastodon herds, Clovis Isthmus hunters from Panama crossed and spread to South America, as shown by genetic records of burial sites in Brazil and Chile now revealed. This genetic evidence confirms well-known archaeological finds such as the Monte Verde site in southern Chile, where men have rescued 14,800 years ago.
Among the many known Clovis sites, the only burial site associated with the Clovis equipment in Montana, where the remains of a small boy (Anzick-1) were discovered and dated to 12,600 years ago. DNA extracted from these bones has DNA connections from skeletons of people who lived between 10,000 and 9,000 years ago in caves near Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In other words, the people of Lagoa Santa were partial descendants of the Clovis migrants of North America.
"From the genetic perspective, the people of Lagoa Santa are the descendants of the first Amerindians," said archaeologist André Menezes Strauss, who co-ordinated Brazil's part of the study. Strauss is associated with the University Museum of Archeology and Ethology (SAE) (MAE-USP).
"Surprisingly, members of this first strand from South Americans did not leave any well-known descendants among the Amerindians today," he said. "Some 9,000 years ago their DNA completely disappears from fossil samples and is replaced by DNA from the first immovable donation, before the Clovis culture. All Amerindians who lives as the descendants of this first wave. We do not yet know why the genetic stock of Santa's Lagoa people has disappeared. "
A possible reason for the disappearance of DNA from second migration is that it has diluted into the DNA of the Amerindians that are the first wave descendants and can not be identified through existing genetic analysis methods.
According to Tábita Hünemeier, a genetician at the University of São Paulo, Bioscience Institute (IB-USP) who took part in the research, "one of the main results of the study was to identify Luzia people as a genetic connection with the Clovis culture, ; dismantle the idea of two biological components and the possibility of two migration to America, one with African and other features with Asian features. "
"The people of Luzia must have come from the immigrant wave coming in in Beringia," he said, referring to the now melted Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to Alaska during the glaciers, when sea levels were lower.
"The molecular data suggests a replacing population in South America for 9,000 years ago. Luzia people disappeared and were replaced by the Amerindians alive today, although both of them have a common origin in Beringia," says Hünemeier.
Brazil's researchers' contribution to the study was fundamental. Among the 49 individuals whose fossil DNA were taken were seven skeletons dated 10,100 to 9,100 years ago from Lapa do Santo, a rock shelter at Lagoa Santa.
The seven skeleton were found, along with dozens of others, and was based on successive archaeological campaigns on the site, originally led by Walter Alves Neves, a physical anthropologist at IB-USP, and since 2011 by Strauss. The archaeological campaigns led by Neves were funded between 2002 and 2008 by the São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP.
In total, the new study into DNA fossil investigated by 49 individuals found in 15 archaeological sites in Argentina (two sites, 11 individuals dating to between 8,900 and 6,600 years ago), Belize (one site, three people dating to between 9,400 and 7,300 years ago) Brazil (four sites, 15 individuals are out of date between 10,100 and 1,000 years ago), Chile (three sites, five people dating between 11,100 and 540 years ago) and Peru (seven sites, 15 individuals dating between 10,100 and 730 years ago).
Brazil's skeletons come from the Lapa do Santo archaeological sites (seven people dating about 9,600 years ago), Jabuticabeira II in the Province of Santa Catarina (a sambaqui or a greyhound with five people dating to about 2,000 from years ago), as well as two river middens in the Ribeira Valley, São Paulo State: Laranjal (two people dating out to about 6,700 years ago), and Moraes (one person dating to around 5,800 from years ago).
Paul Antônio Dantas de Blasis, an archaeologist associated with MAE-USP, led the excavation at Jabuticabeira II, also supported by FAPESP through a Thematic Project.
Excavation at river river sites in São Paulo City was led by Levy Figuti, also an archaeologist at MAE-USP, and also supported by FAPESP.
"The Morales (5,800 year old) skeleton and the Laranjal skeleton (6,700 years old) are among the ancient ones from South and South East Brazil," said Figuti. "These locations are strategically unique because they are between the uplands of the Atlantic plateau and coastal plants, contributing to our understanding of how South-East Brazil has been copied . "
These discharges were detected between 2000 and 2005. From the beginning, a complex mix of coastal and inland cultural features was introduced, and the results of their analysis generally varied except for one skeleton that was obtained Diagnosed as Paleoindian (DNA analysis is not yet analyzed after completion).
"The newly published study is a major step forward in archaeological research, increasing what we know until a few years ago about American peoplo archeology," said Figuti.
Recently, Hünemeier has made a significant contribution to rebuilding human history in South America using paleogenomics.
Not all human remains found in some of the ancient archaeological sites in Central and South America belong to the genetic descendants of Clovis culture. Residents had a number of DNA associated with Chlovis.
"This shows that, as well as a genetic contribution, the second wave migration to South America, which was associated with Clovis, could also bring technological principles expressed in the famous fish points found in many parts of South America, "Strauss said.
How many human emigrations from Asia came to America at the end of Ice Age, more than 16,000 years ago so far were unknown. The traditional theory, created in the 1980s by Neves and other researchers, was that the first wave had African features or features similar to some Australian Aboriginals.
The well-known Luzia forensic surface reconstruction was performed in accordance with this theory. Luzia is the name given to a female fossil skull who lived in the Lagoa Santa region, 12,500 years ago, and sometimes referred to as the "first Brazil".
The British anatomical artist Richard Neave was built a bust of Luzia's features with African on the skull's morphology basis in the 1990's.
"However, a skull shape is not a reliable note of antiquity or geographical origin. Genetics is the best basis for this type of quote," Strauss explained.
"The genetic results of the new study show in a category that there was no significant connection between people and Lagoa Santa groups from Africa or Australia. So the presumption that Luzians are from a migratory wave before the ancestors of today's Amerindians has resolved . Against, the DNA shows that people of Luzia are completely Amerindian. "
A new bust has replaced Luzia in the Brazilian scientific pantheon. Caroline Wilkinson, a forensic anthropologist at the University of Liverpool John Moores in the UK and a pupil of Neave, has produced the reconstruction of the surface to one of the entertained individuals in Lapa do Santo. The rebuild was based on a reused digital model of the skull.
"Really familiar with us to rebuild the traditional faces of Luzia with strong African features, this new facial reconstruction reflects the fascinating of the first inhabitants of Brazil much more accurately, displaying the great and incredible features that the great American variety has been established over thousands of years, "said Strauss.
The study was published in Aberystwyth Cell, he added, also introduces the first genetic data on the Brazilian coastal sambaquis.
"These scorpion shells were built around 2,000 years ago by popular societies living on the Brazilian coast. A fossil DNA breakdown of shell twmpath burial in Santa Catarina and São Paulo shows that these groups are similar genetically for the Amerindians living today in the South of Brazil, especially the Kaingang groups, "he said.
According to Strauss, DNA extraction is of a very technical fossil, especially if the material was found on a site with a tropical climate. For almost decades, extreme fragmentation and significant contamination prevented different research groups from successfully extracting genetic material from the bones found in Lagoa Santa.
This has now done thanks to the methodological developments developed by the Max Planck Foundation. As Strauss explains it's enthusiastic, much more to find out.
"It is planned to start the construction of the first archaeological laboratory of Brazil in 2019, thanks to a partnership between the Museum of Archeology and Ethology (MAE) University of São Paulo and the Institute of Bioscience (IB) with funding from FAPESP. When ready, it will give a new intention to investigate South America and Brazil's copying, "said Strauss.
"To some extent, this study does not change what we know about how the region has been problematic but also significantly changing how we study human skeletal remains," he said. Figuti.
Human remains in Lagoa Santa were found first in 1844, when Peter Wilhelm Lund (1801-1880) discovered a total of 30 deep anglers in a cavern under a flood. Almost all of these fossils are now in Denmark's Museum of Natural History in Copenhagen. One skull has stayed in Brazil. He was given by Lund to the Institute of Brazilian History and Geography in Rio de Janeiro.
Arrival through climbing and boundaries
On the same day as Cell An article was published (November 8, 2018), a newspaper in the magazine Science also found new findings on fossil DNA from the first emigrants to America. André Strauss is one of the authors.
Among the 15 ancient skeleton of which genetic material was removed, five belong to the Lund Collection in Copenhagen. They date from 10,400 to 9,800 years ago. This is the oldest in the sample, alongside an estimated person to be 10,700 years old.
The sample included fossil human remains from Alaska, Canada, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. The results of the molecular analysis suggested that the first human groups out of Alashigion were not American peoploying resulting from a gradual decline of territory touching population growth.
According to the researchers who are responsible for the study, molecular data suggests that the first people to attack Alaska or nearby Yukon, have split into two groups. This happened between 17,500 and 14,600 years ago. One North and Central American group organized the other South America.
American peopers moved back by faults and boundaries, as small bands of hunter-gatherers traveled far away to settle in new areas until they reached Tierra del Fuego in a move for a maximum of one or two years.
Among the 15 individuals analyzed their DNA, it was found that three of the Puma Lagoa Santa had some genetic material from Australasia, as suggested by the theory offered by Neves to occupy South America. The researchers can not explain the origins of this Australasian DNA than the way that only a few people left Lagoa Santa.
"The fact that Australasia's genomic signature has been present for 10,400 years in Brazil but it has been absent in all of the genomes that have been proven to date, which are old or & # 39; n older, and being detected further to the north, is a challenge that considers his presence in Lagoa Santa, "he said.
Other fossils collected during the twentieth century include the skull Luzia, which was discovered in the 1970s. Now there are almost 100 skulls that Neves and Strauss have surpassed in the last 15 years in USP. A number of similar fossils are held at the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MG).
But the vast majority of these osteological and archaeological treasures, which belong to more than 100 individuals, were deposited at the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro and were probably destroyed in the A fire that rose through this historic building on September 2, 2018.
The Luzia skull was available at the National Museum alongside the reconstruction of the Neave surface. Scientists were afraid that it had been lost to the fire but fortunately this is one of the first objects to restore the ruins. He had broken up but survived. The fire destroyed the rebuilding original face (of which there are several copies).