Medicine was transformed in the 20th century discovering and developing antibiotics, and the vast majority of them came from one source: soil bacteria.
But it seems that we have pulled out that supply. Fit resistant that causes existing antibiotics increases, threatening millions of lives and the cost of billions of dollars. New surveys of soil bacteria tend to become old chemicals. And a few pharmaceutical companies that develop new antibiotic drugs.
But the same class of bacteria that gave us many of our antibiotics, known as Streptomyces, makes a home not only in the soil but in its entirety, including insects. Cameron Currie, a bacteriology teacher from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has shown that some of these microbes related to insects provide protection against infection protection, suggesting that insects and insects Microbiots have been a rich source of antibiotics to use in human medicine.
So, with a team of colleagues, Currie pointed out to prove that idea, thousands of times. In a comprehensive search of microbes of more than 1,400 insects collected from various environments across North and South America, the Currie team found that insects-driven microbes are often better than soil bacteria. preventing some of the most common and dangerous antibiotic pathogens.
In their work, the scientists discovered a new antibiotics of a Brazilian fungus farmer adventure, naming it as a combo. Compomycin was effective in laboratory tests against most antibiotics fungi and fungal infections challenged without causing toxic side effects in a mouse model. The researchers have introduced a cytomycin-based patent due to its effectiveness in these early tests, setting up the team to start carrying out the extra additional work needed before cymicin could be developed for a new drug used in and clinic.
The study is the largest and most thorough to assess antibiotic-related microbes for antibiotic activity to date.
The work was published January 31 in the magazine Nature Communication. The study was led by Marc Chevrette, a Currie Lab graduate student, with colleagues at UW-Madison Pharmacy School, PC School of Medicine and Public Health and several other North and South American organizations.
Streptomyces developed about 380 million years ago and since then they have disappeared to many strands, some of which are commonly found in the soil or are insects related to insects. That evolutionary distance means that microbes associated with insects have adapted to their own unique environmental contexts.
"It follows, if you look in a different evolutionary context, find a new chemistry," said Chevrette.
To inspect a large part of a variety of insects, the Currie team collected more than 2,500 species across all groups of large insects, including insects, slices and bees, moths and butterflies, beetles and more. About a third were collected in tropical landscapes, and another third of temperate climates, with the remainder of arctic regions or other regions.
"We could collect 400 insects in a few days," said Currie, and his own collection assignment came to Hawaii in the winter. More than half of those insects had defeated the correct types of bacteria. Of all, insects provided more than 10,000 microbes to test. The team isolates 7,000 different types of soil or plant sources.
Then the experiments came – many of them.
"The real power in our study is that we've done so 50,000 times," said Chevrette.
The 50,000 trials proved that all microbes were able to prevent the growth of 24 different bacteria and fungi, many of which, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, known as better MRSA, pose serious threats to human health.
A larger proportion of microbes associated with insects could prevent the growth of these bacterial or fungal targets than only soil or plant microbes.
With Professor David Andes Medical Microbiology of the School of Medicine and Public Health PC, researchers tested several dozen types of promising microbes about their ability to fight infected in mice. Extracts of these microbes effectively bacteria and fungal blades were killed, and there were very few toxic side effects that showed them.
As another proof of concept, the team worked with the School of Chemistry of Chemistry School to pursue chemicine and determine its chemical structure. Compomycin is able to treat infection in mice by Candida albicans, a fungi-opportunistic pathogen that often inconsistent people. Compomycin also showed low toxiness in muts.
By demonstrating effective antimicrobial action and low toxicity in mice, researchers have passed the first obstruction to developing new antibiotics for clinical use among people. But many promising drugs fail further when developing, which is why it is important to identify a number of antibiotics in the early stages.
Currie's team is not surprised that insects associated with insects are a promising source of new antibiotics. For one, they say, insects can help choose antibiotics that are not toxic to animals. And because many insects depend on microbial antibiotics to combat pathogens that are ever developed in their own environment, they have chosen to have antibiotics that can overcome common resistance mechanisms.
"The insects make us the prospects," said Currie.
Search the sea, and bacterial battles, for new antibiotics