The work was published in the British Medical Journal between 2014 and 2017 by researchers from Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Framingham State University, among other American organizations.
It is known that genetic factors affect body pressure, which explains some of the variants in the body mass index (BMI) among people. However, these genetic factors can not explain why ordinary people today are "protecting" body weight much more than 40 years ago, the article states.
It was known that energy spending was reduced with weight loss, assumed to recover pounds, but little was known about how diet composition influences the long-term adaptive metabolic response.
"This analysis is the largest diet study carried out to test the carbohydrate and insulin model and provides a new way of tackling treatment for obesity, "stressed lead investigator David Ludwig.
According to this model, "processed carbohydrates flowing in a low fat diet increases insulin levels and, as a result, fat cells store more calories," he said. Then, with less calories available to the rest of the body, hunger increases and the metabolism slows down, resulting in weight gain.
After passing several examples of a selection, 164 participants who had lost 12% of their random weight were assigned to one of the three diets that included high, moderate and low levels of carbohydrates. The sequence lasts for twenty weeks, where insulin secretion, metabolic hormones and total energy expenditure were evaluated, that is, burns calories.
The results showed that the total energy expenditure was significantly higher in the low carbohydrate diet, because the participants burned more than 250 calories more per day than those who had followed the diet with a higher carbohydrate character.
This would "lead to a weight loss of about 20 cents after three years," said researcher Cara Ebbeling.
Also, according to the study, the difference in calories burned between low and high carbohydrates diets was much higher in those with high levels of insulin secretion with an average of 400 calories having been burned daily.
From the results, the authors argue that a low carbohydrate diet could increase energy spending during weight loss maintenance and this metabolic effect could improve the effectiveness of obesity treatment.