The outer layer of the Earth, the solid crust we walk on, includes cut-off pieces, very similar to broken eggshell.
These pieces, the tectonic plates, move around the planet at a speed of a few centimeters per year.
As often as they come together and combine to be superficial, which lasts for a few hundred million years before cutting up, The Talk reported.
Then the plates will spread or scatter and move away from each other, until they are in the end – after 400-600 million years – come back together .
The last supercontinent, Pangea, formed about 310 million years ago, and began to cut about 180 million years ago.
It was suggested that the next supercontinent will form 200-250 million years, so we are currently approximately halfway through the dispersal phase of the current supercontinent cycle. The question is: how will the next supercontinent form, and why?
There are four basic scenarios for the formation of the next supercontinent: Novopangea, Pangea Ultima, Aurica and Amasia. How each form depends on different scenarios, but ultimately, they are linked to how Pangea separates, and how the continents of the world are still moving today.
The Pangea cut led to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean, which still opens and becomes more widely today. As a result, the Ocean Ocean closes and goes on the other hand.
The Pacific Ocean is home to a circle of abduction cycles along its edges (the "ring of fire"), where the floor of the sea is stolen, or removed, under continental plates and into the Earth.
Then, the old seafront is recycled and can enter volcanic volumes.
Conversely, the Atlantic has a large ocean ridge that produces a new sea plate, but only two sub-home areas into it: the Lower Arc Antilles in the Caribbean and Arc Scotia between South America and Antarctica.
If we assume that today's conditions continue, so that the Atlantic continues to open and the Pacific Ocean continues to close, we have a situation where the next supercontinent forms Pangea antipodies.
The Americas would confront Antarctica in North Wales to the north, and then to Africa-Eurasia who had already conflicts.
The supercontinent that then formed would have been named Novopangea, or Novopangaea.
2. PANGEA LAST
However, the opening of the Atlantic may slow down and start closing in the future.
The two small segments of subtacles in the Atlantic could spread along the eastern eastern coasts, leading to a reform of Pangea as America, Europe and Africa bring together a back-head of & # 39 ; the name Pangea Ultima.
This new Supercontinent would be surrounded by Super Ocean Ocean.
However, if the Atlantic were developing new sewerage zones – something that might already be happening – the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean may be tight to close.
This means that a new ocean basin would have to be formed to replace it.
In this scenario the Pan-Asian collapse that breaks through Asia from west India to the Arctic opens to form the new sea. The result is the formation of Aurica & Supercontinent.
Due to the fact that Australia around the north drifts, it would be central to the new continent as East Asia and Americas close the Pacific from either side or the other.
The European and African plates would then rejoin the Americas as the Atlantic shut.
The fourth scenario predicts a completely different fate for the Earth in the future. Many tectonic plates are currently moving to the north, including Africa and Australia.
This drift is thought to be driven by anomalies left by Pangea, deep inside the Earth, in the part of the name of the mantle.
Due to this northern drift, one can predict a situation where the continents, except Antarctica, still climb to the north.
This means they would eventually collect around North Pole in a senior head of the name Amasia. In this scenario, the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean would remain mostly open.
From this four scenario we believe that Novopangea is the most likely. There is a logical development of current continental plate drift references, while the other three assume that another process comes in.
There would be a need for new zones for Atlantic downgrading for Aurica, reversing the Atlantic opening for Pangea Ultima, or inconsistencies inside the Earth left by Pangea for Amasia.
Investigating the Earth's tectonic future forces us to push the boundaries of our knowledge, and to think about the processes that shape our planet over long periods of time.
It also leads us to think of the system of the Earth as a whole, and it raises a series of other questions – what is the climate of the next pre-final? How will the sea circulation adjust? How will life evolve and adapt?
Here are the kinds of questions that push science boundaries further because they push the boundaries of our imagination.
Originally, this article appeared on The Conversation and was re-issued with permission.
Not by Mattias Green, Reader in Physical Oceanography, Bangor University; Hannah Sophia Davies, PhD Researcher, Universidade de Lisboa; Joao C. Duarte, Researcher and Co-ordinator of the Group of Geology and Marine Geophysics, University of Lisboa.