An international team of researchers has revealed unexpected details of Central and South America bureau by studying the high quality ancient DNA data from those regions.
The findings include two former genetic swaps between North and South America, one of which represents a continental population turnover.
The results suggest that the people who spread the culture of Clovis, the broad archaeological culture of North America, have a big demographic effect further to the value of what is valued. previous.
The authors analyzed genomic data from 49 individuals from Central and South America, some as old as 11,000 years. Previously, the only genomes reported from this region that provided enough quality data to analyze were less than 1,000 years old.
By comparing ancient and modern genomes from America and other parts of the world, researchers were able to get new qualitative insights into the early history of Central and South America.
Published in the magazine Cell, the study is led by researchers at Harvard Medical School; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Max Planck Foundation for Human History Science; University of California, Santa Cruz; Pennsylvania State University; University of New Mexico; São Paulo University and other institutions in Argentina, Australia, Belize, Brazil, Chile, the European Union, Peru and the United States.
The researchers received official licenses to excavate and carry out an analysis of ancient human remains and consulted with local government agencies and indigenous communities.
Clovis links in the Central and South Uplands
A distinctive DNA type associated with the Clovis culture was found in Chile, Brazil and Belize 11,000 to 9,000 years ago.
"One of the key findings was that a person associated with the Clovis culture of North America dates to about 12,800 years ago sharing a unique antique with the oldest individuals from Chile, Brazil and Belize," he said. 39; the author Co-lead Cosimo Posth of the Max Planck Foundation for the Human History Science. "This supports the assumption that expanding people spreading the culture of Clovis in North America has also reached Mid and South America."
However, Clovis's associated culture lines are missing in American Americans today and in ancient samples that are less than 9,000 years old.
"This is our second key discovery," said senior director David Reich, a genetic teacher at Harvard Medical School and researcher Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "We have shown that there has been a population across the continent that started at least 9,000 years ago."
After re-letting the population, an impressive genetic sequence between ancient individuals dates up to 9,000 years ago and modern people from American mass regions. This contrasts with West Eurasia and Africa, where there are not many places with continuous continuation.
Identity of California Channel-related in the Andes
The second spread of unknown people in front of himself revealed in an analysis showing that ancient California people of the Channel Islands have a distinguished shared antiquity with groups that became common in the southern Peruvian Andes at least 4,200 years ago .
The researchers say that this is unlikely to reflect the population spread specifically from the Channel Islands to South America. Instead, they assume that the link between these regions is the result of the expansion of people that occurred thousands of years earlier, and that such sort of madness has become more extensive in the Andes after subsequent events Ne America.
"What has expired in South America could be in thousands of years ago and we do not have earlier individuals to show it," said Nathan Nakatsuka, a research assistant at the Reich laboratory at Harvard Medical School and lead author of study. "There is archaeological evidence that the population of the Central Andes area has expanded considerably after about 5,000 years ago. They may find it back according to these groups during these events."
Pledge of ancient DNA research in America
Researchers emphasize that their study does not give an insight into the findings that can come through work in the future.
To learn about the initial movements of people in Central and South America, they say that an ADD would have to be dated by people who date before 11,000 years ago.
Even for the period between 11,000 and 3,000 years ago this study focused on it, the picture is far at all.
"We had ancient data from Amazonia, North America and North America, and so we can not decide how individuals in these regions are about analysts," said Reich. "Filling these gaps should be a priority for future work."
"We are excited about research potential in this area," said co-senior author Johannes Krause of the Max Planck Foundation for Human History Science. "With regionally focused studies in the future with large sample sizes, we could realize the ancient DNA potential to reveal how the human diversity of this region has become today."
First people: Study finds two ancient and reborn ancestors & # 39; with settling South America
Cell, Posth et al.: "Recreate the Deep History of the Middle and South American Population" DOI: 10.1016 / j.cell.2018.10.027, https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674 (18) 31380-1