A new review of more than 140 studies examines the physiological hazards that climate change is likely to have on animal life, including people. The review is published in the magazine Physiology.
2018 was the fourth-year record record, according to NASA scientists, and most of the hottest days recorded during the past decade. This data refers to a trend of warmer temperatures and increasing frequency and severity of 21-century heat well heat waves. The increasing density of global warming increases the likelihood of preventing heat and related illness in humans, as well as the stress of heat in animals on land, both in the sea and in the air.
"Animal populations are likely to respond to the increasing frequency and severity of heat waves through several different methods: movement, adjustment and death (or selection)," wrote Jonathon Stillman, PhD, the author of the review. Stillman describes how species – including people – adapt patterns of migration, behavior and physiological characteristics to cope with a growing hot climate.
Migration: Many species change seasonal patterns patterns – also called migration – to avoid too hot locations. Some migratory species of birds and fish can settle in areas that, due to global warming, are now too cold.
Behavioral change: "Behavioral movements in response to extreme heat in endothermic home homes (ie, birds, mammals) are most likely to increase the amount of time consumed in cooling heat (eg sweating, panting, wet ditching, swimming ), with [accompanying] Increase in demand for water, "said Stillman. By increasing cooling methods, however, many small species lose more water than their body size can include. Dehydration can be a major threat to survival.
Physiological changes: Changes in proteins that regulate energy balance and gene expression can occur when the temperature of the environment continues consistently higher than in previous years. These modifications sometimes lead to the ineffectiveness of energy centers and cells (mitochondria) and can cause more stress in the heart. These and other physiological changes may also occur in future generations due to the behavioral shifts of parents.
Human behavior: "Changes in the behavior of human societies will also be needed in response to the increased severity of heat waves, especially in populations that have not historically experienced daily activity during dangerous levels of extreme heat," said Stillman. This is especially true for people living in cities because they are less likely to have direct access to water bodies, which provide a cool source, he explained.
"Today's cohort of ecological, evolutionary and environmental physiologists, together with the next generation of scientists who are mentoring them, have essential roles in producing, communicating and translating # 39; The science-based evidence that responsible policy makers need to address the effects of the short-term and long-term outcome of climate change on animals, including people, "wrote Stillman.
Materials provided by American Society of Physiology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.