The ISS that is full of shoots, honestly, is not a surprise. But some of them resist antibiotics, and that is worrying.
The International Space Station may sound clean, but in fact it's cracked with microbes. JPL-NASA scientists note how many types of Enterobacter are in samples collected from the toilet and exercise area of the space station. Enterobacter is best known for infecting patients with weak immune systems in hospitals, and they are extremely resistant to antibiotics.
Fortunately, the stresses identified on the ISS are not pathogenic to people (they do not infect) people. And, although it is almost impossible to get people without bacteria – we succeed in our own microbiomes around anywhere we go – just finding any stress from Enterobacter on the station is enough anxiety .
The genre is famous for her preaching on uninhabited patients on Earth; He is also famous for his strange objection to antibiotics. Space is (pardon the quip) environment out of this world. There is more radiation, there is almost no gravity, there are people everywhere, tied in a tube with lots of carbon dioxide. All of these restrictions could change how the microbes live and multiply – these changes, in turn, could cause them to become pathogenic to humans.
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NASA employs a large amount of microbiologists at its Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which regularly analyzes samples of microbes that are sent down from the ISS to see if space life changes their populations or practices. Microbiologists also keep track of any potential biological hazards to either the equipment or the health of the astronauts. This is the first time that they identify antibiotic resistant Enterobacter strains at the station.
"To show which species of the bacteria were present on the ISS, we used different methods to characterize their genomes in detail. We revealed that genomes of the five IOB Enterobacter strains are genetically similar to three types of news found on Earth, "explained microbiologist Kasthuri Venkateswaran.
"These three strains belong to one species of bacteria, called Enterobacter bugandensis, found to cause disease in bonuses and compromise patients, who were admitted to three different hospitals (in eastern Africa, Washington and Colorado). "
The samples were collected in 2015. As no astronauts have been hit down since then, the threat seems to be a direct threat. However, the team says that this situation can change quickly – and it would be bad. The space-borne Enterobacter was found to be resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, and cephazolin, cefoxitin, oxacillin, penicillin and reffampin are virtually completely immune.
The strains also share 112 genes with clinical stresses, which are related to virulence, disease and protection. The team reports that computer models show a 79% probability that the space strains will develop and human pathogen and cause disease.
At the moment, however, the astronauts are safe. However, the possibilities, however, are not proven in living organisms. So the team works to better understand the situation and develop a response procedure (which they hope to never use) against these bacteria.
"Possessing an opportunistic pathogen like E. bugandensis causes disease and how much threat it is, depending on a variety of factors, including environmental ones," says Venkateswaran. "Further in vivo studies are needed to discover the effect that conditions on the ISS, such as microgravity, other space, and factors associated with a spacecraft, on pathogenicity and virulence."
The "Species published" Paper Enterobacter-resistant bugandensis resistant species of the International Space Station and relative genomic analyzes with human pathogenic layers "in the magazine BMC Microbiology.
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